Zaujímavé

Koľkokrát sa Nemecko pokúsilo vyjednať mier v 2. svetovej vojne?

Koľkokrát sa Nemecko pokúsilo vyjednať mier v 2. svetovej vojne?



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Myslím v zozname všetkých mierových rokovaní, či už nútených alebo nie, úspešných alebo nie. Zatiaľ ma napadá niekoľko:

  • Nemecko anektovalo Poľsko.
  • Mier s Holandskom po jeho napadnutí.
  • Mier s Dánskom po jeho napadnutí.
  • Nemecko rokovalo o mieri s Francúzskom v roku 1940.
  • Rudolf Hess sa pokúsil v roku 1941 vyjednať s Britániou mier ... sám?
  • Myslím, že Himmler vyjednal možný mier s Veľkou Britániou a USA.
  • Nemecká kapitulácia v roku 1945.

Chýbajú mi ďalšie pokusy? Možno toto počas bitky o Dunkerque? Akýkoľvek iný?


Vynechali ste niekoľko krajín, ktoré Nemecko dobylo, vrátane Belgicka, Grécka, Luxemburska, Nórska a Juhoslávie. Pokiaľ ide o vašu definíciu mierových rokovaní, stojí za to ich skontrolovať.

Hessov úmysel vyjednávať nemal šancu. Nikdy nebolo celkom jasné, aká bola jeho ponuka, ale zdá sa, že pôsobil v rámci zásadného nepochopenia britskej formy vlády. Predstavil si, že vojvoda z Hamiltonu, s ktorým sa očividne krátko stretol na berlínskej olympiáde, by mu mohol zaistiť audienciu u kráľa, aj keby bola vláda proti. Akonáhle mal toto publikum, očakával, že kráľ bude rád, keď prepustí celú vládu a nainštaluje novú, ktorá bude na strane Nemecka. To by mohlo dávať zmysel, ak by ste predpokladali, že britská vláda fungovala presne tak, ako v prípade cisárskeho Nemecka, vrátane osobnostných nedostatkov cisára Wilhelma II., A že väčšina britského ľudu sa chcela pridať na stranu Nemecka, ale vláda bola v rozpakoch voči nemecko-boľševickým nepriateľom . Táto konšpiračná teória bola koreňom nacizmu a mala tendenciu zničiť spáchané pokusy nacistov pracovať s inými politickými systémami. Jeho dôveryhodnosť sa tiež vyparila, keď Hitler svoju misiu odmietol.

Himmler chcel rokovať s Američanmi a Britmi a určite požiadal ľudí vo Švédsku, aby zariadili rokovania. Zdá sa, že to bolo tak ďaleko, ako to bolo možné, pretože unikli správy o tom, čo viedlo k tomu, že ho Hitler vyhodil ako zradcu. Je známa Himmlerova vyjednávacia pozícia, ktorou bolo, že on a SS boli životne dôležití pre udržanie poriadku v Nemecku, a že západní spojenci sa očividne radi spoja s Nemeckom pri vedení vojny proti Sovietskemu zväzu. Vzhľadom na skutočný postoj spojencov k práci SS, toto nikdy nikam nevedie. Na konci druhej svetovej vojny bolo jasné, že Západ a ZSSR budú mať potom ťažké vzťahy, ale nacistické Nemecko bolo na tom horšie a oni sa s tým najskôr vysporiadali.

Zdá sa, že pokiaľ ide o „mierové rokovania počas Dunkerque“, dotyčný autor Stephen Davis pracuje väčšinou v oblasti senzáciechtivých dejín. Express.co.uk, kde sa príbeh objavil, je a vysoko nespoľahlivý zdroj. Je to nad úrovňou bulváru amerického supermarketu, ale nie o veľa. Sústreďuje sa na to, aby sa spomienky na starších čitateľov zdali dôležité, a na senzačnú senzáciu všetkého, čo by mohlo pomôcť pri zdravotných problémoch starších ľudí. To je jej agenda. Hneď v prvej časti môžete vidieť, ako tento príbeh zapadá.


Neverím, že by sa nemecká vláda pokúsila vyjednať ukončenie vojny. Robili to jednotlivci, čo bolo v skutočnosti viac úpadku ako vyjednávania. Bolo to skôr naopak. Nemecko zradilo dohody s inými krajinami.


Rudolf Hess, nacista, ktorý tvrdil, že prinesie mierovú ponuku od Hitlera

Rudolf Hess bol najvyšším nacistickým predstaviteľom a blízkym spolupracovníkom Adolpha Hitlera, ktorý na jar 1941 šokoval svet letom s malým lietadlom do Škótska, zoskočil padákom na zem a po zajatí tvrdil, že doručuje návrh na mier z Nemecka. Jeho príchod sa stretol s úžasom a skepticizmom a zvyšok vojny strávil v zajatí.

Rýchle fakty: Rudolf Hess

  • Narodenie: 26. apríla 1894, Alexandria, Egypt.
  • Úmrtie: 17. augusta 1987, väznica Spandau, Berlín, Nemecko.
  • Známy pre: Vysoko postavení nacisti, ktorí v roku 1941 odleteli do Škótska a tvrdili, že predložili návrh na mier.

Stál Royal za tajným sprisahaním s cieľom použiť nacistu Rudolfa Hessa na zvrhnutie Winstona Churchilla?

Mladší brat kráľa Juraja VI. Bol ústrednou postavou neúspešného anglo-nemeckého sprisahania s cieľom zvrhnúť Winstona Churchilla a uzavrieť mier s nacistami.

A malo sa to stať, keď Rudolf Hess padol do padáka do Británie počas druhej svetovej vojny.

Požiadajte teda dvoch expertov, ktorí sa domnievajú, že princ George, vojvoda z Kentu, sa podieľal na plánovaní odvážneho štátneho prevratu na zvrhnutie vojnového premiéra a nadviazanie spojenectva s Hitlerom.

Na rozdiel od Churchilla, ktorý sa skvele zaviazal „nikdy sa nevzdať“, sa princ a jeho kruh obávali, že Britániu bude možné zachrániť pred pazúrmi gestapa iba uzavretím zmluvy s Fuhrerom.

Historici teraz veria, že vojnové prímerie by tiež chránilo kráľovskú rodinu a aristokraciu pred zabitím alebo uväznením pod nemeckou vládou.

Churchill, ktorý mal podporu národa a jeho armády, však stál v ceste potenciálnym vyjednávačom mieru.

V jednom z najdramatickejších okamihov intríg počas druhej svetovej vojny v roku 1941 Hess vzal na seba sólo let do Škótska, aby nadviazal kontakt so zariadením v snahe udržať Britániu mimo vojny.

Spadol na padák, ale bol zajatý domobranou a potom držaný v londýnskom Toweri, zomrel v roku 1987 po tom, čo strávil zvyšok svojho života vo väzení po Norimberskom procese na konci vojny.

Hessove motívy fascinujú vojnových historikov viac ako sedem desaťročí a teraz nová kniha naznačuje, že bol v kauze s členmi britskej kráľovskej rodiny.

Podľa Rudolf Hess: Zrada a podvod princ, strýko kráľovnej a jeho sprisahanci plánovali chopiť sa moci a vyzvali kráľa, aby zosadil Churchilla pomocou svojich „rezervných právomocí“-zriedka používaných špeciálnych právomocí, ktoré umožňujú panovníkovi odvolať predsedu vlády a jeho vládu bez akéhokoľvek schválenie.

30-tisícová armáda spojeneckých Poliakov, ktorí do roku 1941 utiekli zo svojej vlasti a sídlili v Škótsku, mala v prípade potreby podporiť prevrat s implikovanou hrozbou palebnej sily.

Autori knihy tvrdia, že Hitler nemal „čo stratiť“, a ak by plán vyšiel, Nemecko by malo Spojené kráľovstvo ako spojenca pri plánovanej invázii do Ruska.

Ak nie, Hitler bude pokračovať vo svojom pláne vylodiť jednotky na južnom pobreží a dobyť Britániu vo svojom voľnom čase, akonáhle bude Rusko porazené.

Napriek niekoľkomesačnému plánovaniu sprisahanie zlyhalo, keď Hessa zadržali vládne sily po zoskoku padákom neďaleko Glasgowa, keď v jeho lietadle došlo palivo - čo bol kľúčový moment v druhej svetovej vojne a ten, ktorý pokračoval v zaistení nezávislosti Británie.

Strhujúce odhalenia prichádzajú v deň 75. výročia Hessovho letu.

Spoluautori John Harris a Richard Wilbourn študovali takmer 10 000 dokumentov za obdobie viac ako 25 rokov v ich úsilí odhaliť skutočný dôvod Hessovej návštevy-jednu z najväčších nevyriešených záhad druhej svetovej vojny a tému nespočetných konšpiračné teórie.

Dôkazy, ktoré hovoria, „veľmi silne poukazujú“ na anglo-nemecký prevrat sústredený okolo samotnej kráľovskej rodiny.

Nie je to prvýkrát, čo sa kráľovská rodina stretla s nechcenými nacistickými asociáciami - vlani sa objavili zábery, ktoré ukazujú, že kráľovná, ktorá mala vtedy šesť alebo sedem rokov, sa pridala k kráľovnej matke a jej strýkovi princovi Edwardovi, princovi z Walesu, zdvihnutím ruky. na nacistický pozdrav.

Harris, známy odborník na Hess, povedal: „Skutočný dôvod Hessovho letu je záhadou už trištvrte storočia, ale veríme, že to mohlo byť len z jedného z dvoch dôvodov: buď to bol komplikovaný nalákať Britov na získanie času, alebo to bol skutočný pokus malej skupiny aristokratických sprisahancov zorganizovať prevrat.

"Po zvážení všetkých dôkazov a vo svetle nedávnych objavov, ktoré sme urobili, teraz veríme, že to bol v skutočnosti pokus o prevrat sústredený okolo princa Georga."

„Aristokracia mala na tom, aby Churchill zostal pri moci, čo najviac stratiť. Vedeli len to, že Nemecko každú noc bombarduje Britániu, čím krajinu pred inváziou zmäkčilo, čo by ich určite stálo majetok, postavenie a životy.

"Tiež boli nešťastní, že Churchillova stratégia sa točí okolo americkej aliancie, ktorú mnohí celkom správne považovali za koniec Britského impéria." Mierová zmluva s Nemeckom, krajinou, ktorá mala historické väzby s kráľovskou rodinou, by sa im zdala ako najrozumnejšia možnosť. Komunizmus bol skutočným nepriateľom najmä pre tých, ktorí majú čo stratiť.

"Do sprisahania bolo zapojených mnoho strán, ale náš výskum opakovane poukazuje na jedného muža, ktorý bol so všetkými spojený: princ George."

Autori spoločne napísali dve knihy na túto tému, pričom sa v minulosti domnievali, že Hessa zlákala do Veľkej Británie britská tajná služba pod falošnou zámienkou vytvorenia vojenskej aliancie.

Británia a Nemecko by spoločne disponovali vojenskou silou na rozdrvenie Ruska - ich najnenávidenejšieho nepriateľa - a potlačenie komunizmu v tomto procese.

Ale po preštudovaní tisícov dokumentov z archívov z Veľkej Británie a Európy a po nespočetných rozhovoroch dvojica identifikovala to, čo opisuje ako najpravdepodobnejší scenár.

Autori teraz vedia, že k Hessovi sa obrátila frakcia tajnej služby, ktorá tajne pracovala v mene princa Georga - známeho zástancu mieru.

Táto prísne tajná kabala, vrátane zástupcu vedúceho MI6 Clauda Danseyho, prisahala vernosť kráľovskej rodine, ktorá by takmer určite bola zosadená z trónu v prípade nemeckej invázie.

Jeden sympatický agent MI6, Tancred Borenius - blízky priateľ princa Georga a Georgovej matky, kráľovnej Márie, údajne poskytol Hessovi podrobnosti o prevrate a pozvanie na podpísanie mierovej zmluvy v mene Nemecka počas tajnej misie do Ženeva, Švajčiarsko v januári 1941.

Nie je jasné, či Hess požiadal Führera o povolenie alebo nie, hoci Harris a Wilbourn veria, že Hitler o tomto pláne s najväčšou pravdepodobnosťou vedel.

Harris povedal: „Po rokoch, keď bol akčným mužom - lietal na bojových lietadlách a zúčastňoval sa akcie - sa Hess do roku 1941 stal Hitlerovým hlavným tlačiteľom pera.

"Veríme, že to bol hlboko nešťastný a znudený muž a že táto intriga bola presne tým druhom dobrodružstva, ktoré tak zúfalo potreboval."

Na to, aby bola prepracovaná „mierová misia“ úspešná, však musí byť konzervatívny predseda vlády najskôr odvolaný z vlády. Spoluspiklenci vedeli, že Churchill by nikdy nesúhlasil s mierovou dohodou s nacistami.

To si vyžadovalo podporu kráľa Juraja VI., Ktorý by bol vyzvaný, aby uvalil svoje rezervné právomoci na prerokovanie alebo prerušenie parlamentu.

Prevrat by bol jediným spôsobom, ako sa zbaviť Churchilla, pretože v Británii v čase vojny neexistujú žiadne voľby.

Prevzatie by ďalej podporovala sila prudkej poľskej armády. Jeho generál Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski bol susedom princa Georga v Berkshire a blízkym priateľom.

Harris hovorí, že Churchill si bol vedomý ohrozenia svojej pozície, aj keď nepoznal všetky podrobnosti o prevrate ani o zapojení tajných služieb.

Hess plánoval odletieť na letisko v škótskom Ayrshire 10. mája 1941, kde sa Harris domnieva, že plánoval stretnutie s vojvodom z Kentu.

Hess bol však zatknutý po zoskoku padákom zo svojho lietadla Messerschmitt Bf 110, ktoré núdzovo pristálo na poli v Eagleshame južne od Glasgowa.

Harris, 56, povedal, že udalosti v noci Hessovho príchodu sú buď „veľmi náhodné“, alebo „silne naznačujú sprisahanie, aké sme uzavreli“.

Napríklad princ George, slúžiaci člen RAF, je údajne v Škótsku v deň Hessovho príchodu a bol priateľom Douglasa Douglasa-Hamiltona, 14. vojvodu z Hamiltonu, ktorého Hess požadoval vidieť pri zajatí.

Generál Sikorski medzitým ukončil cestu za finančnými prostriedkami v USA, aby na druhý deň odletel späť do Prestwicku, neďaleko Glasgowa, pričom ohrozil život tým, že ovládol nový typ lietadla, ktoré bolo síce rýchlo, ale notoricky ťažko ovládateľné.

RAF tiež zatiaľ nevydala žiadnu správu o tejto afére, čo prinútilo Harrisa a Wilbourna k záveru, že sa na tom podieľa aj ich spravodajské oddelenie.

Harris dodal: „Možno sa zdá neuveriteľné myslieť si, že člen kráľovskej rodiny mohol byť pripravený urobiť dohodu s Hessom a Hitlerom, ale 25 rokov výskumu a kopania nás viedlo k tomuto záveru.

"Samozrejme, nič sa nedá dokázať." Tajná služba nemá žiadnu časovo viazanú povinnosť odtajniť dokumenty rovnakým spôsobom, akým vláda a kráľovský archív nedokázali pomôcť s našim vyšetrovaním presného pobytu princa Georga v noci 10. mája, čo je podozrivé v sám, pretože jeho pohyby pred a po tomto dátume sú dobre zdokumentované.

„Veríme, že kľúčom k celej záležitosti je zapojenie agenta MI6 Tancreda Boreniusa, ktorý bol oboznámený s princom Georgeom a kráľovnou Máriou, oslovil ho zástupca MI6 Claude Dansey a zaznamenáva sa, že sa stretol s generálom Sikorskim krátko pred Hessom. Let.

"Existujú silné a zdokumentované dôkazy o tom, že jeho tajná misia v Ženeve odovzdala posolstvo pozývajúce Hessa, aby prišiel do Británie hovoriť o mieri, ale keby to bola múdra lákačka tajnej služby, Churchill by o tom vedel od začiatku," čo neurobil, a Borenius by bol určite vyznamenaný za svoju statočnosť ako ostatní vojnoví hrdinovia namiesto toho, aby bol viac ako 70 rokov strieľaný z histórie. “

Hess skončil svoje dni vo väznici Spandau v Nemecku, pričom v roku 1987 vo veku 93 rokov zrejme spáchal samovraždu, pričom nikdy neodhalil skutočné motívy svojho letu.

Princ George zahynul pri vojenskej leteckej havárii 25. augusta 1942, ako prvý Royal zahynul pri boji za 500 rokov.

Rudolf Hess: Treachery and Deception (Jema Publications) za cenu 25 libier v tvrdej väzbe je práve teraz k dispozícii a zhoduje sa so 75. výročím Hessovho letu do Škótska.


Prečo spojenci umožnili Nemecku žalovať za mier v prvej svetovej vojne?

Prečo spojenci v prvej svetovej vojne dovolili vláde Kaisera žalovať za mier a vyjednávať vo Versailles? Po vstupe Američanov do vojny sa spojenci mohli stále tlačiť, až kým násilím nevzali celé Nemecko a potom ho rozdelili na štát spred roku 1871, čím sa vyhli všetkým neskorším nepríjemnostiam. Priznám sa, že možno mám problém s odstupom času.

Nemci nesmeli rokovať vo Versailles, boli konkrétne vylúčení z konferencie. Zmluva bola vyjednaná medzi víťazmi a potom prinútená Nemecku, aby ju prijalo alebo opustilo.

Neviem dosť na to, aby som hovoril o uskutočniteľnosti skutočného dobytia celého nemeckého územia.

Tiež: Kaisersova vláda bola v dôsledku prímeria vyrazená. Versaillská zmluva bola v skutočnosti diktovaná republikovej vláde.

Celkovo išlo pravdepodobne o vojnovú únavu obyvateľstva a istú diplomatickú konzervatívnosť politikov.

Ukázalo sa, že vojna je oveľa dlhšia, ako sa očakávalo, a vzhľadom na jej nový charakter predstavovala určitý psychologický šok pre všetky dotknuté populácie. Napriek úspechu ofenzívy na sto dní v roku 1918 mohli spojenecké vlády sotva ignorovať záležitosti, ako sú vzbury vo francúzskej armáde v roku 1917 alebo ruská revolúcia. Polovičný charakter spojeneckých intervencií v ruskej občianskej vojne tieto problémy celkom dobre ukazuje a je podľa mňa dosť pravdepodobné, že pokračujúca ofenzíva proti centrálnym mocnostiam potom, čo zažalovali mier, by čelila podobným problémom neobľúbenosti. Napriek tomu, že je ľahké považovať druhú svetovú vojnu za pokračovanie prvej svetovej vojny, treba pamätať na to, že išlo o veľmi odlišný konflikt, v ktorom boli obavy tradičnejšie v zmysle územnej výhody: oveľa ťažšie bolo tvrdiť morálnu prevahu prostredníctvom ideológie. Podobne aj napriek neskoršiemu verdiktu nemeckej vojnovej viny bolo Rakúsko-Uhorsko prvým, kto vyhlásil vojnu, zatiaľ čo Rusko ako prvé nariadilo mobilizáciu.

Diplomaticky bola rovnováha síl v Európe niečím, o čo sa politici v predvojnových rokoch neustále zaujímali, aj keď sa Versaillská zmluva snažila zmierniť dôležitosť konceptu prostredníctvom Spoločnosti národov. Zničenie Nemecka by na to malo veľmi vážne dôsledky. V skutočnosti mnohé poznatky o tejto otázke možno nájsť v rokovaniach o samotnej Versaillskej zmluve, zatiaľ čo Francúzsko vzhľadom na svoju spoločnú hranicu s Nemeckom chcelo čo najviac oslabiť svoju pozíciu, Anglicko a Spojené štáty geograficky ďalej odstránený, mal tendenciu vnímať francúzsku politiku ako príliš tvrdú voči Nemecku. Francúzsko má v skutočnosti prinajmenšom podľa Keynesa, ktorý bol proti tomuto prístupu k zmluve, vracanie času a vrátenie Nemecka do stavu z roku 1870, najmä však prostredníctvom povojnových ekonomických a vojenských kontrol. To malo vplyv na európsky kontinent ako celok, najmä s postavením Nemecka ako predvojnovej hospodárskej veľmoci.

Podobná diskusia by bola potrebná pre extrémnejší scenár, ktorý navrhujete, a je dosť nepravdepodobné, najmä vzhľadom na demokratickú povahu spojeneckých mocností a vojnovú únavu v populácii, že by ju našla akákoľvek iná mocnosť Spojencov, než možno Francúzi žiaduce.


Koľkokrát sa Nemecko pokúsilo vyjednať mier v 2. svetovej vojne? - História

DAVID IRVING * odhaľuje, že spojenci si boli vedomí japonských pokusov ukončiť vojnu pred Hirošimou. Japonci neboli prví, ktorí zistili, že je jednoduchšie dostať sa do vojny, ako sa dostať von.

Bývalé TAJNÉ SÚBORY v Londýne a Washingtone teraz odhaľujú, že Japonsko sa tri týždne pred zhodením atómových bômb pokúšalo vzdať a vyslalo najzávažnejšie mierové správy a Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill a ďalší spojeneckí vodcovia o tom vedeli. toto.

V decembri 1946 liberálny člen parlamentu vyzval britskú vládu, aby to pripustila. Z interných dokumentov zahraničného úradu vyplýva, že vyvodili, že M.P. vedel pravdu, ale aj keď F.O. cítil, že je načase vyčistiť sa („bolo by nerozumné pokračovať v neoficiálnom utajovaní skutočnosti“) premiér Clement Attlee sa odlepil z M.P. vyhýbavými odpoveďami, z úcty k pocitom prezidenta USA Harryho S Trumana.

K vyšetrovaniu tohto hirošimského tajomstva ma priviedli dve zdanlivo rutinné rozhlasové správy, ktoré som pred dvadsiatimi rokmi našiel medzi súbormi nízkoúrovňových vstupov a výstupov uchovávanými Trumanovým štábom, ktoré sú teraz archivované v úhľadnej budove v Independence v Missouri.

Prvá z 12. júla 1945, viac ako tri týždne pred Hirošimou, sa týkala iba ultra tajnej správy označenej ako OUT-105.

Samotný OUT-105 chýbal, a to ma zaujalo.

Druhý (vpravo) bol IN-178, datovaný o devätnásť dní neskôr. Bola to nevýrazná dvojriadková odpoveď, ktorú poslal Truman a potom sa vrátil do Washingtonu zo samitu Veľkej trojky v nemeckom Postupime Henrymu L Stimsonovi, jeho staršiemu republikánskemu ministrovi vojny.

Pustiť koho alebo čo? Verejné vyhlásenie? Dôstojník zo služby? Nebolo tušenia a zvyšok súboru bol celkom rutinnou záležitosťou.

Japonské vojenské postavenie už bolo beznádejné. Zásoby ropy sa jej míňali a americké nálety a námorné bombardovanie ničili jej vojnové hospodárstvo. Pri požiari v marci 1945 zahynulo v Tokiu už viac ako 100 000 civilistov. V máji a júni dosiahlo bombardovanie crescendo s individuálnymi nájazdmi super pevností B-29, ktoré kaskádovali sedemtisíc ton bômb do japonských miest.

V Tokiu bol nápis na stene. 18. júna Trumanov šéf štábu admirál William D Leahy vyslovil názor, že kapituláciu je možné zariadiť „s podmienkami, ktoré môže Japonsko akceptovať“.

V tom čase Japonsko začalo s diskrétnymi kapitulačnými vlajkami nad vlajkovými stožiarmi niekoľkých jej diplomatických misií po celom svete, najmä v správach vysielaných veľvyslancom v Moskve a Štokholme. Pútavo používali kód - PURPLE -, o ktorom vedeli, že Američania aj Briti sú schopní čítať.

Bol to úhľadný spôsob, ako robiť veci. Mohli nepriamo, ale rýchlo informovať Londýn a Washington o svojej úprimnej túžbe hodiť uterák a pritom zachrániť tvár. Do polovice júla sa tieto správy zamerali na získanie pomoci Moskvy pri vyjednávaní mieru.

Vyskytli sa však zádrhele. Japonský veľvyslanec v Moskve bol indolentný a názorový diplomat, ktorý považoval za zbytočné dávať takéto návrhy Rusom. Sovietsky zväz nebol vo vojne s Japonskom. Stalin nemal žiadny záujem na podpore raného mieru v Pacifiku a chystal sa vyhlásiť vojnu samotnému Japonsku.

Aj Washington sa rozhodol potlačiť každé znamenie, že sa Japonsko pokúša prestať. Keď Medzinárodná spravodajská služba 7. júla 1945 zapojila, že traja vplyvní vydavatelia novín zajatí na Okinawe potvrdili, že sa Japonsko okamžite vzdá za predpokladu, že Spojené štáty nasadia iba symbolickú okupačnú silu, ministerstvo zahraničných vecí zverejnenie správy zakázalo.

8. júla sa ministerstvo dozvedelo, že japonský vojenský atašé#233 v Štokholme oznámil princovi Bernadottovi počas večere, že cisár Hirohito požiada švédskeho kráľa Gustava, aby kontaktoval spojencov, keď nastane ten správny čas, a že uviedol iba jednu japonskú podmienku vzdania sa: totiž, že samotný cisár zostane vo funkcii. (Tento termín bol následne prijatý spojencami).

Takže aj v tento deň bolo zrejmé, že všetky americké reči o milióne vojakov, ktorí prišli o život pri invázii do Japonska, boli prinajlepšom zle informované a v najhoršom prípade úmyselné klamanie britskej a americkej verejnosti. Bolo zrejmé, že k žiadnej opozičnej invázii nedôjde.

Teraz už bežne rozlúštený japonský diplomatický ruch Britmi a Američanmi začína prinášať svoj mimoriadny obsah: tokijský minister zahraničných vecí začal zavádzať svojho pomalého veľvyslanca v Moskve do akcie a požadoval, aby požiadal o rozhovor so sovietskym ministrom zahraničia Vyacheslavom Molotovom . Typickým znakom novej naliehavosti Tokia bol tón týchto správ, napríklad 9. júla: „Bez ohľadu na vaše názory, prosím, splňte moje príkazy.“

Nasledovali ďalšie dva dni katastrofických amerických náletov. 11. júla Tokio odhalilo, že za mimoriadne naliehavým a prísne tajným posolstvom stojí samotný cisár Hirohito, ktorý Američania rozlúštili ako MAGIC intercept č. H-1961505:

Po vymenovaní rôznych ústupkov, ktoré bolo Japonsko ochotné urobiť Rusku za cenu za túto službu, telegram nariadil veľvyslancovi, aby ihneď zaistil rozhovor s Molotovom, „pretože ide o záležitosť, o ktorú má obrovský záujem aj cisársky dvor“.

Lámači kódov amerického námorníctva rozlúštili ďalšie pokyny 12. júla a vyzvali veľvyslanca, aby ihneď informoval Molotov o „cisárskej vôli týkajúcej sa konca vojny“, pričom použil tieto presné termíny:

Aj keď angloamerické naliehanie na Bezpodmienečné odovzdanie nenechalo Japoncom inú alternatívu, než bojovať, pokyny však pokračovali:

Hirohito preto navrhol, aby Moskva bezodkladne prijala princa Fumimara Konoyeho, bývalého japonského premiéra, za vysokého špeciálneho vyslanca.

Do tejto doby odišiel Truman s veľkým sprievodom do Postupimi. Význam tohto najnovšieho odpočúvania sa nestratil u niekoľkých Američanov, ktorí mali privilégium si ho prečítať, medzi nimi aj tajomník námorníctva James V Forrestal. (Stránky jeho denníka, ktoré sa ho týkali, boli po jeho smrti odstránené a na ďalších tridsať rokov klasifikované ako prísne tajné).

TENTO intercept, ktorý sa teraz ukázal, bol signálom chýbajúcim v súbore v Trumanových archívoch, OUT-105.

Do Postupimi sa ponáhľalo 13. júla 1945 v uzamknutom vrecku. Počas vysokorýchlostného diaľnopisu z Washingtonu major Putnam naliehal na plukovníka Bowena z postupového personálu v Postupime: „Keď príde večierok, určite si pozrite Map Room OUT-105.“

Bowen sa telexoval späť z Postupimi, zvedavý na obsah „105“.

Biely dom odpovedal: "105 'je jednou zo správ, ktoré dostávame uzamknutým vreckom a nemožno ich odtiaľto prenášať."

V Moskve medzitým sovietsky minister zahraničných vecí Molotov odmietavo videl japonského veľvyslanca. Jeho zástupca tak urobil o piatej hod. 13. júla: vypočul si cisárovu ponuku osobitného vyslanca a lenivo - a úplne nepravdivo - sa ospravedlnil, že jeho nadriadení odchádzali v tú noc do Postupimi. Japonský veľvyslanec, ktorý sa teraz zbláznil, aby splnil svoje poslanie, navrhol Rusom, aby kontaktovali Postupim telefonicky. (Jeho odoslanie na toto všetko, vysielané do Tokia, bolo zachytené aj spojencami.)

Tokijské naliehavé telegramy pokúšajúce sa vzdať sa pokračovali ďalšie dva týždne. Americká vláda pred mnohými rokmi vydala tieto zachytené záznamy, pochované medzi pol miliónom ďalších, do Národného archívu vo Washingtone, DC.

Napriek tomu, že britskí lámači kódov získali celú sériu, britská vláda sa k ich existencii priznala len nedávno a dokonca - v záchvate obmedzenej otvorenosti - nedávno iba dva z týchto telegramov odhaľujúcich pokusy o kapituláciu Japonska, z 24. a 25. júla, 1945, na Verejný záznamový úrad, kde ich nájdete v triede HW.1. Skutočnosť, že Whitehall vedel o japonských pokusoch o kapituláciu už od 13. júla, je pred britskými výskumníkmi stále skrytá.

Ako keby o nich nevedeli, 26. júla Briti a Američania vydali z Postupimi vyhlásenie, v ktorom vyzvali Japonsko, aby sa bezpodmienečne vzdalo. Vyhrážali sa: „Alternatívou pre Japonsko je rýchle a úplné zničenie.“

Len o dva dni neskôr Joseph Stalin odovzdal svojim spojencom cez Postupimský konferenčný stôl ponuku japonskej kapitulácie.

„Bola to osobná túžba cisára,“ presne citoval Stalin, „zabrániť ďalšiemu krviprelievaniu. … Naša odpoveď bude, samozrejme, záporná.“

Mrtvý Harry S Truman - ktorému to všetko bolo známe z tých, ktorí lámali kódy, napriek tomu povedal: „Veľmi si vážim, čo povedal maršál.“

Prečo bola teda Bomba zhodená?

Podľa mňa miliardový „projekt Manhattan“ nabral na obrátkach. Bolo to nezastaviteľné. Príliš veľa ľudí malo záujem vidieť, ako sa používa, najmä štátnici, ktorí ju tlačili, a technici, ktorí ju postavili. Ten chcel, aby bol použitý na zatiaľ nepoškodenom cieli, aby sa kalibrovala jeho pekelná sila proti skutočnému telu a krvi, proti budovám a mostom.

Súkromný denník generála Hapa Arnolda, náčelníka amerických armádnych vzdušných síl, ho 22., 23. a 24. júla ukazuje na hodinových sedeniach s ministrom Stimsonom, ktoré diskutujú o superbombe-o tom „kde, prečo a čo efekty, “ako si Arnold vo svojich poznámkach naznačil ceruzkou. Stimson mu nehovoril o pokusoch o kapituláciu Japonska.

Bol to tajomník vojny Henry Stimson (vpravo), ktorý formálne navrhol zamestnať Bombu. Počet tiel by bol Japonec, ale bol to vplyv na Rusov, ktorí s ním a ďalšími štátnikmi teraz počítali.

Už 14. mája 1945, po rozhovore o tomto „horúcom zemiaku“ s generálom Marshallom, diktoval do svojich spisov názor, že spôsob, ako sa teraz vysporiadať s Ruskom, je „nechať naše činy hovoriť za slová“.

Rusi, cítil, by rozumel činom lepšie ako čokoľvek iné. „My (Američania) musíme získať späť vedenie a možno to urobiť dosť drsným a realistickým spôsobom.“

Tentokrát pripomenul Marshallovi, že Washington držal všetky karty - „kráľovský priamy flush“, ako to povedal.

„Nesmieme blázniť v tom, ako to hráme,“ povedal. „Uvádzame do činnosti zbraň, ktorá bude jedinečná.“

* Druhý zväzok kontroverznej biografie Davida Irvinga Churchillova vojna s názvom Triumf v nešťastí sa objavuje na jeseň tohto roku 󞪂 ]. Bol to jeho prvý zväzok, ktorý začal súčasnú diskusiu medzi britskými historikmi o Churchillových vojnových cieľoch. Publikoval tiež prvú históriu atómového úsilia nacistického Nemecka Nemecká atómová bomba (Simon & amp Schuster).


Prímerie v lese, od Fritza Vinckena 1

Bol Štedrý večer a okolo našej malej chatky zúrila posledná zúfalá nemecká ofenzíva z 2. svetovej vojny. Zrazu sa ozvalo klopanie na dvere …

Keď sme na Štedrý večer v roku 1944 počuli klopanie na naše dvere, ani matka ani ja sme ani len netušili, aký tichý zázrak nás čakal. Mal som vtedy 12 rokov a bývali sme v malej chate v lese Huertgen, neďaleko nemecko-belgických hraníc. Otec zostal na chate na loveckých víkendoch pred vojnou, keď spojenecké bombardéry čiastočne zničili naše rodné mesto Aachen, poslal nás tam bývať. Bol nariadený do protipožiarnej stráže civilnej obrany v pohraničnom meste Monschau, vzdialenom štyri míle.

“Budeš v bezpečí v lese, ” mi povedal. “ Postarajte sa o matku. Teraz ste mužom rodiny. ” Deväť dní pred Vianocami však poľný maršál Von Rundstedt zahájil poslednú zúfalú nemeckú ofenzívu vojny a teraz, keď som šiel k dverám, Bitka v Ardenách zúrilo všade okolo nás. Počuli sme neustály dunenie lietadiel poľných zbraní, ktoré nepretržite stúpali nad nimi v nočných svetlách bodaných tmou. Neďaleko bojovali a umierali tisíce spojeneckých a nemeckých vojakov.

Keď sa ozvalo prvé zaklopanie, matka rýchlo sfúkla sviečky a potom, keď som jej odpovedal, vykročila predo mnou a otvorila dvere. Vonku ako prízraky proti snehom odetým stromom stáli dvaja muži s oceľovou prilbou. Jeden z nich hovoril s Matkou jazykom, ktorému sme nerozumeli, a ukázal na tretieho muža ležiaceho v snehu. Predtým, ako som to urobil, si uvedomila, že ide o amerických vojakov. Nepriatelia!

Matka stála nehybne a nehybne s rukou na mojom ramene. Boli ozbrojení a mohli si vynútiť vstup, napriek tomu tam stáli a pýtali sa očami. A ranený vyzeral viac mŕtvy ako živý. “Kommt opraty, ” povedala mama konecne. “ Poďte ďalej. ” Vojaci niesli svojho súdruha dovnútra a natiahli ho na moju posteľ.

Nikto z nich nerozumel po nemecky. Matka skúsila francúzštinu a jeden z vojakov v tomto jazyku vedel konverzovať. Keď sa matka šla starať o zraneného muža, povedala mi: „Prsty týchto dvoch sú necitlivé. Vyzlečte si bundy a čižmy a prineste vedro so snehom. ” Čoskoro som ich snehom potieral ich modré nohy.

Dozvedeli sme sa, že zavalitý, tmavovlasý chlapík bol Jim, jeho priateľ, vysoký a štíhly, bol Robin. Harry, zranený, teraz spal na mojej posteli, tvár mal bielu ako sneh vonku. Stratili prápor a tri dni blúdili v lese a hľadali Američanov, ktorí sa skrývali pred Nemcami. Neholili sa, ale bez ťažkých kabátov vyzerali iba ako veľkí chlapci. And that was the way Mother began to treat them.

Now Mother said to me, “Go get Hermann. And bring six potatoes.”

This was a serious departure from our pre-Christmas plans. Hermann was the plump rooster (named after portly Hermann Goering, Hitler’s No. 2 man, for whom Mother had little affection) that we had been fattening for weeks in the hope that Father would be home for Christmas. But, some hours before, when it was obvious that Father would not make it, Mother had decided that Hermann should live a few more days, in case Father could get home for New Year’s. Now she had changed her mind again Hermann would serve an immediate, pressing purpose.

While Jim and I helped with the cooking, Robin took care of Harry. He had a bullet through his upper leg and had almost bled to death. Mother tore a bed-sheet into long strips for bandages.

Soon, the tempting smell of roast chicken permeated our room. I was setting the table when once again there came a knock at the door. Expecting to find more lost Americans, I opened the door without hesitation. There stood four soldiers, wearing uniforms quite familiar to me after five years of war. They were Wehrmacht – Germans!

I was paralyzed with fear. Although still a child, I knew the harsh law: sheltering enemy soldiers constituted high treason. We could all be shot! Mother was frightened, too. Her face was white, but she stepped outside and said, quietly, “Froehliche Weihnachten.” The soldiers wished her a Merry Christmas, too. “We have lost our regiment and would like to wait for daylight,” explained the corporal. “Can we rest here?”

“Of course,” Mother replied, with a calmness, born of panic. “You can also have a fine, warm meal and eat till the pot is empty.” The Germans smiled as they sniffed the aroma through the half open door. “But,” Mother added firmly, “we have three other guests, whom you may not consider friends.” Now her voice was suddenly sterner than I’d ever heard it before. “This is Christmas Eve, and there will be no shooting here.”

“Who’s inside?” the corporal demanded. “Amerikaner?”

Mother looked at each frost-chilled face. “Listen,” she said slowly. “You could be my sons, and so could they in there. A boy with a gunshot wound, fighting for his life, and his two friends, lost like you and just as hungry and exhausted as you are. This one night,” she turned to the corporal and raised her voice a little, “This Christmas night, let us forget about killing.”

The corporal stared at her. There were two or three endless seconds of silence. Then Mother put an end to indecision. “Enough talking!” she ordered, and clapped her hands sharply. “Please put your weapons here on the woodpile, and hurry up before the others eat the dinner!:

Dazedly, the four soldiers placed their arms on the pile of firewood just inside the door: three carbines, a light machine gun and two bazookas. Meanwhile, Mother was speaking French rapidly to Jim. He said something in English, and to my amazement I saw the American boys, too, turn their weapons over to Mother. Now, as the Germans and Americans tensely rubbed elbows in the small room, Mother was really on her mettle. Never losing her smile, she tried to find a seat for everyone. We had only three chairs, but Mother’s bed was big, and on it she placed two of the newcomers side by side with Jim and Robin.

Despite the strained atmosphere, Mother went right on preparing dinner. But Hermann wasn’t going to grow any bigger, and now there were four more mouths to feed. “Quick” she whispered to me, “get more potatoes and some oats. These boys are hungry, and a starving man is an angry one.”

While foraging in the storage room, I heard Harry moan. When I returned, one of the Germans had put on his glasses to inspect the American’s wound. “Do you belong to the medical corps?” Mother asked him. “No,” he answered. “But I studied medicine at Heidelberg until a few months ago.” Thanks to the cold, he told the Americans in what sounded like fairly good English, Harry’s wound hadn’t become infected. “He is suffering from a severe loss of blood,” he explained to Mother. “What he needs is rest and nourishment.”

Relaxation was now beginning to replace suspicion. Even to me, all the soldiers looked very young as we sat there together. Heinz and Willi, both from Cologne, were 16. There German corporal, at 23, was the oldest of them all. From his food bag he drew out a bottle of red wine, and Heinz managed to find a loaf of rye bread. Mother cut that in small pieces to be served with the dinner half the wine, however, she put away, “for the wounded boy.”

Then Mother said grace. I noticed that there were tears in her eyes as she said the old, familiar words, “Komm, Herr Jesus. Be our guest.” And as I looked around the table, I saw tears, too, in the eyes of the battle-weary soldiers, boys again, some from America, some from Germany, all far from home.

Just before midnight, Mother went to the doorstep and asked us to join her to look up at the Star of Bethlehem. We all stood beside her except Harry, who was sleeping. For all of us during the moment of silence, looking at the brightest star in the heavens, the war was a distant, almost-forgotten thing.

Our private armistice continued next morning. Harry woke in the early hours, and swallowed some broth that Mother fed him. With the dawn, it was apparent that he was becoming stronger. Mother now made him an invigorating drink from our one egg, the rest of the corporal’s wine and some sugar. Everyone else had oatmeal. Afterward, two poles and Mother’s best tablecloth were fashioned into a stretcher for Harry.

The German corporal then advised the Americans how to find their way back to their lines. Looking over Jim’s map, the corporal pointed out a stream. “Continue along this creek,” he said, “and you will find the 1st Army rebuilding its Forces on its upper course.” The medical student relayed the information in English.

“Why don’t we head for Monschau?” Jim had the student ask. “Nein,” the corporal exclaimed. “We’ve retaken Monschau.”

Now Mother gave them all back their weapons. “Be careful, boys,” she said, “I want you to get home someday where you belong. God bless you all!” The German and American soldiers shook hands, and we watched them disappear in opposite directions.

When I returned inside, Mother had brought out the old family Bible. I glanced over her shoulder. The book was open to the Christmas story, the Birth in the Manger and how the Wise Men came from afar bearing their gifts.

Her finger was tracing the last line from Matthew 2:21, “…they departed into their own country another way.”

Not long after Vincken’s story appeared in Reader’s Digest, a short video was produced based on that event:

1 Vincken, Fritz, “Truce in the Forest,” Readers Digest, January 1973, pp 111-114.


Conclusion ↑

Peace initiatives during World War I never had much chance of success. Three reasons stand out for why this was so. First, both sides suffered from a profound sense of insecurity. They were trapped in an anarchic international system long characterized by uncertainty, arms races, warfare, and constant intrigue. Both sides tended to assume the worst in their enemies both trusted in the reduction of their opponents’ power, more than anything else, to keep them safe. So long as they could believe that they had a plausible chance to prevail on the battlefield, they would not abandon their quest to achieve that goal. Secondly, the character of the German government, especially after Ludendorff and Hindenburg consolidated their power after July 1917, made a peace based upon the status quo ante bellum – the terms most likely to end the fighting – almost impossible. Germany’s military leaders consistently opposed even the indirect forms of German expansion advocated by Bethmann Hollweg and Kühlmann as inadequate for Germany’s security, were completely convinced that only the most extensive gains possible could fend of revolution at home, and, at crucial turning points in the war, always advocated high-risk gambles for victory rather than seriously explore peace possibilities. Finally, the policies of the United States helped to prolong the war. In the neutrality period, Wilson chose to acquiesce in Britain’s blockade and trade with the Allies while confronting Germany over its submarines. In effect, whatever Wilson’s motives, this stance helped to fuel the Allied war effort while discrediting the United States as a potential mediator. After the U.S. entered the conflict, it provided enough help to the Allies to keep them willing to fight while being so slow to get its army into action that Germany could still think it could win. For all of these reasons, the war became absolute – a fight to the finish where only the impending invasion of German soil by Allied forces could end it.


Ross A. Kennedy, Illinois State University


How many times did Germany try to negotiate a peace in WW2? - História

Obviously, where a mainstream school of thought is useful to an Establishment, any non -mainstream views are detrimental to those who benefit from the status quo. From this perspective, people who would rather think for themselves, and/or who have something to say that does not support these mainstream views, are undesirable - and all too often are silenced. We at The Scriptorium believe that this is classically evident in publishing, education and any other endeavor related to the presentation of history to the "consumer public", and that a distinct pattern of stressing one side while distorting and hushing-up the other has become standard practice with regard to the fairly recent history of Germany and of the Second World War in particular. After all, when was the last time you or your children heard about crimes committed by Nazi Germany, and when was the last time you saw a book about the Holocaust on your local bookstore shelf? We're willing to bet that it wasn't very long ago. In contrast, when was the last time your public education system taught about the expulsion, butchery and mass murder committed against the German women, children and civilians in the Sudetenland or the Banat, and when was the last time you saw a movie or TV program about life and death in the American post-War(!) concentration camps along the Rhine and elsewhere? What about the Valentine's Day cremation of the undefended hospital city Dresden by the British and Americans? What's that you say - you've never even heard of these things? Well, that's our point exactly.

For our efforts towards making these things public, we have been accused of "racism", "Holocaust denial", "re-writing history", "hatemongering", "stretching the limits of free speech", and the list goes on. Yet how is it "racism" or "hate" to point out that ethnic Germans were at the receiving end of unspeakable brutalities in Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, and other nations? If anything, that shows "racism" and "hate" directed at us! Do we advocate criminal retaliation for these crimes? Nikdy! All we want is for these facts to be acknowledged! - How is it "denial" to point out, for example, that some early 20th-century British writers, statesmen etc. had good things to say about Hitler and the Third Reich, or to show that Germans too were victims of genocides and atrocities? Saying that "ABC happened" does not equal or even imply that "XYZ did not happen". - And how is it "re-writing history" to point out uncomfortable historical facts such as "ABC" that can be verified elsewhere by anyone who cares to take the time and to go to the extra effort to look beyond his standard-issue schoolbooks? Do the "limits of free speech" exclude the accounts of certain victims because they happen to be German? Excuse us for saying so, but isn't that exactly what's called. um. "racism" and "hatemongering"?

Corroborating information about all we publish on this site this exists aplenty, but on the whole it is not openly accessible, and for good reason. The Establishment that benefits from the public ignorance about these matters takes great care to keep it from trickling into public awareness, as such a trickle might start a flood that could wash the foundations out from under it. More often than not, it takes idealists who have resisted the lure of the Big Money to be made in the mainstream media, to publish this forgotten history for the sake of a truthful and balanced world view, and for the sake of doing justice to the memory of the forgotten victims whose suffering was no less real than that of those who enjoy a forum in the mainstream spotlight.

We at The Scriptorium are proud to do our part by making some of this information publicly available via the Internet. Our online archive is intended as a resource for honest and introspective minds who prefer to leave the mainstream of the masses in favor of calmer waters where they can come to their own conclusions and understanding.

Since June 2005, in an unintended proof of the author Oliver Hassencamp's statement that "a lack of rational arguments usually results in a ban" , the Federal German censorship authority "Bundesprüfstelle für jugendgefährdende Medien" ("Federal Office for the Investigation of Youth-Endangering Media") has been trying to force us to censor our Archive. The historical books etc. in our Archive, which shed a clearly undesirable positive light on German history, are liable - so the BPjM evidently fears - to negatively influence young Germans in their normal development into well-informed and morally balanced citizens of the Federal Republic. (On the other hand, sites that incite to hatred against Germany and the German people are not, of course, deemed to be similarly "youth-endangering" at least, we know of no such case of censorship ordered by the Federal Republic.)

We are law-abiding citizens and always ready to co-operate with the authorities, but even our willingness to co-operate ends when this courtesy is expected to proceed only from us. After having shown the BPjM every conceivable co-operation (while this organ of the modern German Inquisition did not even see fit to confirm receipt of registered letters, much less to reply to our eMail inquiries for information), we shall no longer accord this Federal German censorship office greater authority than it actually has. Our American-hosted web site is not under Federal German jurisdiction and thus also not subject to the Federal German censorship mania the Archive and its historical documents, which violate no North American law, is thus fully accessible again - even for Germans.

It is well known that a ban only makes the banned thing even more interesting and accordingly, many web site visitors have already told us that this official attempt at censorship has only increased their interest in what we have to say. - Are you one of these freethinkers as well? Are you tired of having the same old black-and-white view of history shoved down your throat day in and day out by the Establishment whose vested interests it appeals to? A prejudiced view of history that more often than not tramples our German history into the dirt and resorts to falsification and suppression of information in order to defame our fathers and grandfathers as criminals - lock, stock and barrel? Would you too prefer to trade the politically correct disinformation that the Establishment and its mainstream media are spoonfeeding you, for information that looks beyond totalitarian taboos and simplistic pre-set thought patterns? Do you wish to exercise what should be every mature citizen's right, namely to inform yourself of the many shades of grey that are so generally suppressed, and to draw your own conclusions from them?


The information we present here on our WebSite is intended to give a glimpse of that little-known "other side of the coin". Voices that are all too often stifled and hushed up elsewhere - here they shall be heard! Uncomfortable and controversial information that does not fit the mold of politically correct agenda-history, and which for that reason is to remain safely in an Orwellian memory-hole - we sweep it out from under the carpet!

For the moment, our online bookstore is specialized on German-language books, and the only English books we offer for sale online at this time are the following:
The Blond Knight of Germany ,
The Case for Germany ,
Death in Poland. The Fate of the Ethnic Germans ,
Falsehood in Wartime ,
Germans helped build America ,
The Life and Death of the Luftwaffe ,
Long Night's Journey Into Day: The Death March of Lowicz ,
Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace ,
Truth for Germany ,
With Rommel in the Desert ,
and Worm in the Apple .
This may change in the future, but for now, our main focus in this English half of our site will be on the provision of full-text documents in our Archive - historical documents, many of which have never been available in the English language before now. These translations are made and © by The Scriptorium donations in support of this work are gratefully accepted.

Click on Spitzweg's Bookworm to visit our "Archive" and browse through our online documents!


Here you will find alternatives
to the standard view of history.
Draw your own conclusions,
independently of what's officially decreed.


60 Rare and Unusual Vintage Signs

This process made them durable and weather-resistant. Signs made this way were known as porcelain enamel signs or simply enamel signs.

Porcelain enamel signs originated in Germany and were imported into the U.S. They quickly became a staple of outdoor advertising across the country. Around 1900, designers experimented with bold colors and graphics on the signs and they were used to advertise everything from cigarettes and beer to farm equipment and tires. Early designs were stenciled, but American designers switched to silkscreens and started using a steel base instead of iron. Later, when porcelain enamel became too costly, tin bases were used instead of steel.

Now it is difficult to find antique porcelain enamel signs in excellent condition. Collectors pay hundreds and even thousands of dollars for each addition to their collections. Many of the signs were vandalized, discarded due to etching or crazing in the finish or melted down for the metal during World War II. After the war, the signs were too expensive to manufacture, so we are left with only the dazzling pieces that remain from the era.

Signs were later made of tin and other materials and painted with enamel paint. More of these types of signs remain, but they are often rusted, scratched and distressed. After WWII, &ldquoenamel&rdquo signs were simply enamel paint on a metal, usually tin, base.

How do we make design systems work? In his upcoming Smashing workshop on Successful Design Systems, Brad Frost explains how to plan, execute and maintain a successful design system at your organization. Online, and live. June 29 – July 13, 2021.

There is a huge market for vintage signs and collectors must be wary of distressed reproductions. Often vintage signs are stamped with the date they were manufactured, while other times research and knowledge about antique signs may be required to discern a real antique from a knockoff.

Further Reading on SmashingMag:

Rare and Unusual Antique, Vintage and Retro Signs

Vintage Tin 7up Display Sign
This vintage 7up sign was made to be attached to the rods of a wire display inside a store. It is believed to have been manufactured in the 1950s or 1960s by the Indiana Wire and Specialty Company of Indianapolis, Indiana and measures 12&rdquo x 12&rdquo.

Vintage 7up Enamel Painted Store Sign
This 7up sign is stamped metal and is painted with enamel paint. It measures 20&rdquo x 18&rdquo and was manufactured in 1963 by Stout Sign Co. in St. Louis.

Southwestern Bell Porcelain Sign
This is a large metal Southwestern Bell sign, measuring approximately 28&rdquo to 30&rdquo tall and 19&rdquo to 20&rdquo wide. This sign is still faily shiny, but does have a few chips and some rust spots.

Chevrolet Bel Air Dealer Poster
In the 1950s, car dealerships used posters like this one as indoor signage. These posters were eye-catching and colorful and could be easily changed when new models were introduced.

Vintage Tin Hrobak&rsquos Beverages Sign
This is a rare sign from Hrobak&rsquos Beverages in Philadelphia. It is believed to have been made in the 1940s and measures approximately 20&rdquo x 9&rdquo.

Blue Bell Tobacco Porcelain Sign
This is a heavy steel and porcelain double sided sign. It measures 14&rdquo x 22&rdquo and is in great shape for its age.

Antique Buick Dealership Sign
This is an antique neon sign from a Buick car dealership. It was likely manufactured in the 1950s.

Cadbury&rsquos Chocolate Enamel Sign
Cadbury&rsquos chocolate is a favorite in Europe, which is likely where this antique painted enamel sign was made.

Canada Dry Beverages Porcelain Sign
This vintage sign is porcelain over metal and was manufactured for Canada Dry Beverages. It measures 24&rdquo x 7&rdquo and has chips in the porcelain and rust on the base. Despite its flaws, it is still a valuable collectors item.

Chesterfield Cigarettes Sign
This vintage Chesterfield Cigarettes sign was found hanging on the side of a shed at a gas station in North Carolina. Its age is unknown, but it is authentic. It measures 34&rdquo x 12&rdquo and was likely manufactured in the 1930s or 1940s.

** Stothers Chest & Lung Mixture Sign** This vintage sign was likely made in the 1940s. While is is slightly warped along the bottom, it is still in good condition for its age.

Large Vintage Coca-Cola Sign
This 1939 Coca-Cola sign remains in the wooden frame in which it was originally shipped. It measures 71.5&rdquo x 35.75 and has some dents and surface rust, but is still a nice piece for a collector.

Rare Coca-Cola Cardboard Sign
This Coca-Cola sign is printed on cardboard and measures 20&rdquo x 36&rdquo. It was shrink wrapped onto an acid-free backing board. Printed during the war in 1944, it features two young woman pointing to the area on the globe where their men are serving.

Post-WWII Cardboard Coca-Cola Sign
After WWII, signs had to be made more inexpensively. One option used by Coca-Cola were cardboard signs. This Coca-Cola sign was made in 1948 by Edwards & Deutsch Lith Co. in Chicago and measures 27&rdquo x 16&rdquo.

Congress Beer Pressed Tin Sign This pressed tin sign advertises Congress Beer, which was made by the Haberle Congress Brewing Company in Syracuse, New York. Age has yellowed the lettering on the sign, but it is otherwise in good condition and is a nice collectors item.

Wolf&rsquos Head Oil & Lubes
This unique sign was produced in the 1940s and is 22&rdquo x 17&rdquo. It is an original piece and has been preserved over the years so that it remains in excellent condition. This type of sign in this condition is rather rare and is sought after by the choosiest collectors.

Crown Gasoline Double Sided Porcelain Sign
This Crown Gasoine Standard Oil Company sign is double sided, which is somewhat unusal for a porcelain sign. It measures 26&rdquo square and is showing signs of its age, but is still extremely valuable.

Dad&rsquos Root Beer Tin Sign
This is a 1950s Dad&rsquos Rootbeer sign measuring 27&rdquo x 13&rdquo. It is enamel paint on a tin base and has rusted a bit around the edges.

Delaware Quality Feeds Metal Sign
This vintage Delaware Quality Feeds sign doubled as a public service announcement to warn of an upcoming cow pass. This unique piece measures 12&rdquo x 15&rdquo and is extremely weathered.

Vintage Dr. Pepper Metal Sign
This style of Dr. Pepper sign was introduced in 1958 and discontinued in the early 1970s. It measures approximately 20&rdquo x 7&rdquo and is constructed of thin sheet metal and enamel paint.

Extremely Rare Eldredge Brewing Company Sign
This antique sign was produced in the 1800s for Eldredge Brewing Company in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. It is marked &ldquoWells & Hope Co. Pat Metallic Advertising Signs, Philada, P.A.&rdquo and features an image of a man and a woman enjoying Eldredge lager beer. It measures 20&rdquo x 29&rdquo and aside from some minor wear around the edges, is in wonderful condition.

&ldquoStandard&rdquo Esso Porcelain Sign
The essense of vintage Americana, this large porcelain Esso sign is a valuable collectors item. Esso stations were the original ExxonMobile gas stations and these signs were once very common along U.S. roadways.

Vintage Foot Rest Hosiery Sign
This vintage sign measures 11.25&rdquo x 17.25 and is constructed of tin with a cardboard backing. The image of the child holding the sign is one example of classic antique advertising.

Vintage Coca-Cola Fountain Service Sign
This porcelain sign was made in 1933. It measures 25.5&rdquo x 23&rdquo and shows some signs of its age, but is still a sought-after collectors item.

Mitchell&rsquos &ldquoGolden Dawn&rdquo Cigarettes
Made in an era when smoking cigarettes was glamorized, this tin enamel sign is was designed to be simple and shiny. The name of the company and little else is displayed on the face, which is now chipped and rusting with age.

Unique Good Year Tire Porcelain Signs
These winged Good Year Tire porcelain signs are embossed on the back with &ldquoProperty of Good Year Rubber Company W-73&rdquo. These are large signs, with the larger one measuring 64&rdquo x 23&rdquo and the smaller measuring 46.5&rdquo x 17&rdquo. Both signs were originally white, but a clear lacquer has yellowed the smaller one.

Hi-Plane Tobacco Sign
This 1940s tin store sign advertises an all but forgotten brand of tobacco. It measures 35&rdquo x 12&rdquo and is a colorful collectors item.

Vintage Hires Root Beer Sign
This vintage Hires Root Beer sign measures 9.5&rdquo x 27.5&rdquo and was manufactured by Press Sign Co. in St. Louis.

Merry War Lye Sign
This vintage Merry War Lye sign was made in the 1940s. It was found in the back room of an old general store and measures 14&rdquo x 11&rdquo.

Kool Cigarettes Sign
This store sign was made in the 1950s to advertise Kool cigarettes. It measures 26&rdquo x 11&rdquo and has raised letters and design.

Leaf Spearmint Gum Sign
This Leaf Spearmint Gum sign was made in the 1940s and measures 25&rdquo x 9&rdquo and is in fairly good condition for its age. Its colorful design makes it a popular collectors item.

Miller &ldquoHigh Life&rdquo Beverages Sign
This sign is an original advertisement for Miller &ldquoHigh Life&rdquo Beverages. It was made in the 1940s and measures 20&rdquo x 13.5&rdquo.

MobileGas Porcelain Restroom Pledge Sign
This heavy porcelain sign is measures 7.5&rdquo x 7.75&rdquo. It is a rare and nostalgic piece, bound to bring back memories of the time when customer service was everything.

Vintage Mr. Cola Sign
This unique Mr. Cola sign was made in 1945 by Stout Sign Co. of St. Louis. It measures 11.75 square and the lettering is embossed.

Muratti&rsquos Cigarettes Sign
This colorful tin sign is an antique lithographed advertisement for Muratti&rsquos cigarettes. A collectors item for sure, the sign promotes cigarettes for &ldquoyoung ladies.&rdquo

Old Virginia Cheroots Sign
This turn of the century sign measures 8.5&rdquo square and is extremely rare. The graphic is lithographed onto a tin base

Green Spot Orange Drink Sign
This vintage Green Spot Orange Drink sign was used on an in-store advertising rack. It measured 22&rdquo x 19&rdquo and was manufactured by Arnamac Products Inc. in Cincinatti, Ohio.

Pabst Blue Ribbon Sign
This is a 1940s Pabst Blue Ribbon beer sign constructed of tin over cardboard, which advertises beer for 15 cents.

Pee Gee Paint Sign
This double sided porcelain Pee Gee Paint sign was made in the early 1920s. Although it is definitely showing some age, it is sitll very valuable to collectors.

Vintage Cardboard Pepsi-Cola Sign
This vintage Pepsi-Cola sign was made in the 1950s and measures 8.25&rdquo x 15&rdquo. During this time period, companies were tring to save money and printing on thick cardboard was cheaper than making metal signs.

Phillips 66 Porcelain Sign
This porcelain Phillips 66 sign was made in 1945. It is a double sided sign and likely one of the last porcelain signs of its kind. It was manufactured by Veribrite Signs in Chicago.

Red Coon Tobacco Sign
This brightly colored vintage sign measures 10&rdquo x 14&rdquo.

Vintage Redman Tobacco Die Cut Paper Sign
This original die cut Redman Tobacco sign is believed to have been made in the 1950s. It measures 20.5&rdquo x 15.5,&rdquo is made of paper and is in remarkably good condition.

Antique Railroad Sign
This antique railroad crossing sign is stamped on the back with &ldquoNational Colortype Co. Signs and Signals, Bellvue, K.Y.&rdquo It is constructed of metal and has cat eye marble reflectors.

Antique Railroad Stop Sign
This antique railroad stop sign has cat-eye marbles spelling out the word &ldquoStop,&rdquo making it a unique collectors item.

Senior Service Tobacco Sign
This unique sign is believed to have been made in the 1930s and measures 12&rdquo x 4&rdquo.

Porcelain No Smoking Gas Station Sign
This vintage porcelain &ldquoNo Smoking&rdquo sign came from a gas station. It is still in very good condition and measures 18&rdquo x 5.5&rdquo.

Vintage Squirt Soda Sign
This tin sign advertising Squirt soda was made in 1958. It features an embossed design and measures 27.5&rdquo x 9&rdquo.

Standard Feeds Metal Sign
This old metal farm sign measures 23.5&rdquo x 11.75&rdquo. It is an original made by Stout Sign Co. of St. Louis, Missouri.

Porcelain Star Tobacco Sign
This is a very early porcelain sign, likely made at the turn of the century. Signs this old and in this condition are rare and quite valuable.

&lsquo

Double Sided Star Motor Gasoline Sign
This double sided flange metal sign is measures about 12&rdquo in diameter. It is an original sign, likely produced in the 40s.

&lsquo

Raybestos Brake Service
This rare vintage sign is double sided and flanged and measures 18&rdquo x 13.75&rdquo. It is believed to have been made in the 1950s.

&lsquo

Sunbeam Bread Door Push Plate
This is a door push plate measuring 4&rdquo x 12&rdquo. It was produced in 1953, but never used, which makes it a rare item for the serious collector.

&lsquo

Vintage John Graf Sylvan Dry Soda Sign
This is a vintage tin sign that measures 20&rdquo x 11.5&rdquo. It was manufactured by Donaldson Art Sign in the 1940s.

&lsquo

Allied Mills Inc. Wayne Feeds Sign
This is an original die cut Allied Mills Inc, Wayne Feeds tin sign. It measures 14&rdquo x16&rdquo and is believed to have been made in the early 1930s.

&lsquo

Vintage Whistle Soda Sign
This 19&rdquo x 27&rdquo tin Whistle soda sign is believed to have been made in the 1930s. It features embossing on the entire design and lettering on the sign state it was manufactured by &ldquoThe American Art Works, Inc., Coshocton, O.&rdquo

&lsquo

Sweet-ORR Porcelain Sign
Sweet-ORR produced Union Made pants, shirts and overalls. This 23.5&rdquo x 10&rdquo porcelain sign has some wear, but is still in relatively good condition and would be valuable to a collector.

&lsquo

Dairy Queen License Plate Topper
This metal 6.25&rdquo license plate topper was made in the 1960s. Because this one was never used, it remains in perfect condition.

&lsquo

Antique Beech-Nut Tobacco Porcelain Sign
This is an original Regina Beech-Nut tobacco 12&rdquo x 9&rdquo porcelain sign, showing signs of its age on the edges.

&lsquo


What America ( and the rest of the world ) Learned From World War II

KC, I agree with everything you said all the way up to the end when you talked about maybe reaching “World Peace”. I think there is absolutely no possible way to reach World Peace. With all the dictators and psychotic leaders in the world like in the Middle East and Africa, there is no way we could reach perfect world peace. Theres always some country or some leader that slips up and takes advantage of his country, his government, and his military. But that’s just my opinion.

I agree with KC with her response. I believe that every country in WWII came out with something that they learned or could have done better. I also believe that as close as we get to “world peace” we will never completely reach it because there will always be at least one disaggreement out there that will upset people. Overall good points KC, lots of good examples.

WW2 totally showed the world what happens when leaders decide to look the other. Its necessary that as the leader of your country you look out for fellow countries not only because it is just, but because one day the tables might be turned. I understand how, under certain circumstances, the president may feel as though staying out of it would prevent the loss of many american lives, financial issues, and potential war however, KC raises a point when she says Hitler could have been stopped much sooner….only if. Unfortunately, though there is never any way of knowing what the turn out might be making getting involved a tricky decision.

I also agree that WWII helped greatly shape the world today. Democracies are now more prominent then they were back then. I think this happened because people learned from what people like Hitler and Mussolini did to their society and people wanted more of a say about who their leader would be and how they would be treated. More people now have a choice on how they want their nation to be represented

Great blog! I agree we’ve come a long way since then and we can thank WWII for most of the lessons we’ve learned. We’ve still got a very long way to go though, considering the average American doesn’t know much about international affairs, nor have we actually found a working solution for most of the problems we do know of. We have, at least, learned the most important lesson that it is wrong to simply ignore other nations and their problems how to fix those nations problems without creating more of our own is the real issue. I agree with Sydney and I can see how any leader might refrain from involving themselves with another country for the preservation of their own nations men and woman but, I suppose there isn’t a great deal anyone can do without involving themselves. Perhaps if more people knew about the problems troubling other nations and other men and woman all over the world, they would be more willing to take a risk and help, or simply provide ideas, and solutions. I hope that one day we can get to a point where people genuinely care about the rest of the world, but maybe that’s wishful thinking.

You make a good point in stating that WWII makes nations realize the famage that can be caused when too much power falls into the hands of the wrong person. It is a good point that it seems some countries were so focused on isolating themselves, they did nothing to stop the issue. Now we know that to maintain some sort of peace we must interact with other countries and try to form as many good relationships with them as possible. I believe WWII can also help us to appreciate our luck in having a democracy in which the people choose their leader, unlike the terrible for of dictatorship that was seen in Germany.

There are tons of good things said in this blog post that I agree with! Too much power being in the wrong hands has been proven many times to affect the world in a negative way. I agree that instead of keeping to ourselves trying not to get involved we should not watch people in other countries simply because it is not our own. I do not agree, however, that world peace can be achieved. There is still so much wrong in the world that even if we keep these people who are out to do wrong away from leadership positions they will still find ways to hurt people.

This was a very well written blog. I agree that WWII greatly affected the world during the 1940s, and is still affecting the world today. I also do agree with what RC said about there being no possible way to reach world peace. There is probably a way to come very close to it, but I believe there would be a leader that would take advantage of his/her power just like Hitler did and the peace wouldn’t last. The hope is that someday the world will find the closest possible thing to world peace.

Awesome entry! Yes, I’d think that if the Hitler had not been initially appeased by Neville Chamberlain and if the UN (excluding any Axis powers at the time) was formed perhaps after WWI, then the initial aggression that the Nazi Regime posed on Europe could have been swiftly met with retribution. And perhaps the US would have much more promptly defended the Pacific, Europe, or even Africa if either were still necessary without any appeasing of Germany.

i agree with everything you said, but what stood the most was about making peace with nations and supporting each other. This would help because each country, i think, wants to be powerful, rich in resources and currency, and able to be free. And if we can become one and give each of the nations a say in things if they dont agree with this or that they have that opportunity to do so, and this will decrease war and the number of people dying and suffering. But the main part about trying to make world peace is that not only you are trying to make peace the other nations are gonna have to want too, and the problem is because they are not gonna want to because of what we did to them or what they did to us in the pass centuries and years.

I agree, KC, isolationism can make the world as a whole even worse. If we do not speak up and stand up for other countries bad things such as the Holocaust can occur again. Although I agree with most that was said I do not agree that we as a world can reach total “World Peace”. I do not agree with this because someone is always going to want to be on top and in charge. I think one leader would try to ruin the peace and end up taking over maybe the whole world.

I am very wowed by your entry! But I do have to agree with you its really hard to reach wold peace I mean with all the dictators and debaters. The world will never be at peace everyone is always out to get someone. Also I don’t think world will ever be at peace because people really don’t how to respect others.

I agree with what you have to say but I also have to add that achieving world peace in the society we live in today is close to impossible. Just like RTC said there will always be one country that doesn’t corporate and has to make things difficult. I do agree however that we could come close to peace we we never have full world peace in our world.


Pozri si video: Druhá světová válka v barvě - 1. Přicházející bouře (August 2022).