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26. mája 1942

26. mája 1942


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26. mája 1942

Diplomacia

Anglo-sovietska zmluva s trvaním dvadsať rokov podpísaná

Severná Afrika

Rommel útočí na líniu Gazala a vyvoláva mesiac bojov

Japonsko

Tojo hodnotí vojnu o japonskú diétu. Počas prejavu sa pokúša podnietiť proti-britskú vzburu v Indii



26. máj 1942 - História

1933 Je založené gestapo, oficiálna tajná polícia nacistického Nemecka.

1962 Vesmírna loď NASA Ranger 4 narazila na Mesiac.

1989 Lucille Ball, zo slávy I Love Lucy, zomrela.

1994 V Južnej Afrike sa konajú prvé multirasové voľby.

Slávne narodeniny:

121 Marcus Aurelius (rímsky cisár)

570 Muhammed (zakladateľ islamu)

1933 Carol Burnett (Comedienne)

1960 Roger Taylor (bubeník)

1962 Michael Damian (spevák)

1963 Jet Li (herec a expert na bojové umenia)

Dnes v archíve histórie:

Chcete vedieť, ktorí známi ľudia sa narodili na vaše narodeniny? Stala sa v deň vašich narodenín skvelá udalosť alebo historická udalosť? Vyberte mesiac a deň svojich narodenín, aby ste videli viac zábavných a historických udalostí a slávnych narodenín v daný mesiac. Pozrite sa aj na narodeniny svojho priateľa. Zistite niečo zaujímavé o ich narodeninách alebo skvelej celebrite a pošlite svojmu priateľovi e -mail so zábavnou narodeninovou kartou:


Tento deň v histórii, 5. máj: V USA sa začína dávkovanie cukru vo vojne

Dnes je streda 5. mája 125. deň roku 2021. Do konca roka zostáva 240 dní.

Dnešný vrchol v histórii:

5. mája 1942 sa v USA začalo s dávkovaním cukru vo vojne.

V roku 1494, počas svojej druhej cesty na západnú pologuľu, Krištof Kolumbus pristál na Jamajke.

V roku 1818 sa v Prusku narodil politický filozof Karl Marx, spoluautor „Komunistického manifestu“ a autor knihy „Das Kapital“.

V roku 1891 mala newyorská Carnegie Hall (vtedy nazývaná „Music Hall“) oficiálny otvárací večer, v ktorom hosťoval ako dirigent ruský skladateľ Peter Iľjič Čajkovskij.

V roku 1925 bol učiteľ v Tennessee obvinený z porušovania štátneho zákona, ktorý zakazoval výučbu teórie evolúcie. (Scopes bol uznaný vinným, ale jeho odsúdenie bolo neskôr zrušené.)

V roku 1945 pri jedinom smrteľnom útoku svojho druhu počas 2. svetovej vojny vybuchla na hore Gearhart v Oregone japonská balónová bomba, ktorá zabila tehotnú manželku ministra a päť detí. Dánsko a Holandsko boli oslobodené, pretože nemecká kapitulácia vstúpila do platnosti.

V roku 1961 sa astronaut Alan B. Shepard mladší stal prvým americkým vesmírnym cestovateľom, keď vykonal 15-minútový suborbitálny let na palube lode Mercury s kapelou Freedom 7.

V roku 1973 vyhral sekretariát Kentucky Derby, prvé z jeho víťazstiev v Triple Crown.

V roku 1978 mala zmrzlina Ben & amp Jerry’s svoje začiatky, pretože Ben Cohen a Jerry Greenfield otvorili zmrzlináreň na prestavanej čerpacej stanici v Burlingtone vo Vermonte.

V roku 1981 zomrel vo väznici Maze v Severnom Írsku na 66. deň bez jedla hladovec Írskej republikánskej armády Bobby Sands.

V roku 1987 sa kongresové pojednávania o Iráne a Kontrakte začali s bývalým majstrom letectva, generálmajorom Richardom V. Secordom (SEE’-kohrd), vedúcim svedkom.

V roku 1994 Singapur zabil amerického tínedžera Michaela Faya za vandalizmus, deň po znížení trestu zo šiestich rán bičom na štyri v reakcii na odvolanie prezidenta Billa Clintona.

V roku 2009 zdravotnícki predstavitelia Texasu potvrdili prvú smrť amerického rezidenta na prasaciu chrípku.

Pred desiatimi rokmi: Prezident Barack Obama slávnostne uctil obete teroristických útokov z 11. septembra a v New Yorku objal tých, ktorí prežili, a vyhlásil, že zabitie Usámu bin Ládina je americkým odkazom svetu: „Keď hovoríme, že nikdy nezabudneme, myslíme tým čo hovoríme. " Pakistanská armáda prerušila mlčanie nad náletom amerického komanda, pri ktorom zahynul bin Ládin, pričom uznala svoje „nedostatky“ pri jeho nájdení, ale pohrozila prehodnotením spolupráce s Washingtonom, ak dôjde k ďalšiemu porušeniu pakistanskej suverenity. Režisér, dramatik a scenárista Arthur Laurents („West Side Story“) zomrel v New Yorku vo veku 93 rokov.

Pred piatimi rokmi: Bývalý zberateľ odpadu z Los Angeles Lonnie Franklin mladší bol odsúdený za desaťkrát vraždy pri sériovom zabíjaní „Grim Sleeper“, ktoré sa počas dvoch desaťročí zameriavalo na chudobné, mladé černošky. Prezident Barack Obama zmiernil tresty odňatia slobody 58 federálnym odsúdeným, čo je súčasťou širšieho úsilia o zmiernenie trestov pre nenásilných páchateľov drog. Londýnčania odovzdali hlas vo voľbách, ktoré mestu poskytli prvého moslimského starostu, zákonodarcu z práce Sadiqa Khana, ktorý vystriedal odchádzajúceho konzervatívca Borisa Johnsona.

Pred rokom: Prezident Donald Trump navštívil továreň na masky Honeywell v Arizone, ale ignoroval pokyny na nosenie masky. Spoločnosť Tyson Foods uviedla, že viac ako dva týždne po zatvorení zariadenia z dôvodu prepuknutia koronavírusu medzi pracovníkmi obnoví obmedzenú prevádzku svojho obrovského závodu na spracovanie bravčového mäsa v meste Waterloo v štáte Iowa so zvýšenými bezpečnostnými opatreniami. Napriek tomu, že Joe Biden nemal žiadnych zostávajúcich odporcov, sudca rozhodol, že demokratické prezidentské voľby v New Yorku sa budú musieť konať 23. júna, pretože jeho zrušenie by bolo protiústavné. Michiganské komunity zaznamenali rekordnú účasť na miestnych voľbách, pričom hlasy boli odovzdané predovšetkým poštou. Facebook uviedol, že odstránil niekoľko účtov a stránok spojených s QAnonom, pričom po prvý raz zakročil proti krajne pravicovej konšpiračnej teórii, ktorá kolovala medzi Trumpovými podporovateľmi.

Dnešné narodeniny: Herec Pat Carroll je 94. Vidiecky spevák a hudobník Roni Stoneman má 83. Herec Michael Murphy má 83. Herec Lance Henriksen má 81 rokov. Komik-herec Michael Palin má 78. Herec John Rhys-Davies je 77. Rockový korešpondent Kurt Loder má 76 rokov. Rockový hudobník Bill Ward (Black Sabbath) má 73. Herečka Melinda Culea má 66. Herečka Lisa Eilbacher má 64. Herec Richard E. Grant má 64. Bývalý rozhlasový novinár John Miller má 63. Rockový spevák Ian McCulloch (Echo and the Bunnymen) je 62. Novinár NBC Brian Williams má 62. Rockový hudobník Shawn Drover (Megadeth) má 55. Televízna osobnosť Kyan (KY'-ihn) Douglas má 51. Herečka Tina Yothers má 48. R & ampB spevák Raheem DeVaughn má 46. Herec Santiago Cabrera má 43 . Herec Vincent Kartheiser má 42. Spevák Craig David má 40. Herec Danielle Fishel má 40. Herec Henry Cavill má 38. Herec Clark Duke má 36. Soulová speváčka Adele je 33. Rocková speváčka Skye Sweetnam je 33. R & ampB spevák Chris Brown má 32 rokov. Krasokorčuliar Nathan Chen má 22 rokov.

Novinárstvo, ako sa často hovorí, je prvým konceptom histórie. Každý deň skontrolujte, čo je nové ... a staré.


Zákon o národnej bezpečnosti z roku 1947

Zákon o národnej bezpečnosti z roku 1947 nariadil zásadnú reorganizáciu zahraničnej politiky a vojenských zariadení vlády USA. Tento zákon vytvoril mnoho inštitúcií, ktoré prezidenti považovali za užitočné pri formulovaní a implementácii zahraničnej politiky, vrátane Národnej bezpečnostnej rady (NSC).

Samotná rada zahŕňala prezidenta, viceprezidenta, štátneho tajomníka, ministra obrany a ďalších členov (napríklad riaditeľa Ústrednej spravodajskej služby), ktorí sa stretli v Bielom dome, aby prediskutovali dlhodobé problémy a bezprostrednejšie národné otázky. bezpečnostné krízy. Na koordináciu materiálov zahraničnej politiky z iných agentúr pre prezidenta bol najatý malý personál NSC. Od roku 1953 riadil tento personál prezidentov asistent pre záležitosti národnej bezpečnosti. Každý prezident priznáva NSC rôzny stupeň dôležitosti a dáva zamestnancom NSC rôznu mieru autonómie a vplyvu na iné agentúry, ako sú ministerstvá obrany a štátu. Prezident Dwight D. Eisenhower napríklad využil schôdze NSC na prijatie kľúčových rozhodnutí v oblasti zahraničnej politiky, zatiaľ čo John F. Kennedy a Lyndon B. Johnson uprednostnili neformálnejšiu prácu prostredníctvom dôveryhodných spolupracovníkov. Za prezidenta Richarda M. Nixona sa pracovníci NSC, potom na čele s Henrym A. Kissingerom, zmenili z koordinačného orgánu na organizáciu, ktorá sa aktívne zapájala do rokovaní so zahraničnými lídrami a do vykonávania prezidentových rozhodnutí. Samotné schôdze NSC však neboli časté a boli len potvrdenými rozhodnutiami, na ktorých sa už dohodli Nixon a Kissinger.

Tento zákon tiež založil Ústrednú spravodajskú službu (CIA), ktorá vyrástla z Úradu strategických služieb z obdobia 2. svetovej vojny a malých povojnových spravodajských organizácií. CIA slúžila ako hlavná civilná organizácia zhromažďujúca spravodajské informácie vo vláde. Neskôr sa obranná spravodajská agentúra stala hlavným orgánom vojenskej rozviedky. Zákon z roku 1947 spôsobil aj ďalekosiahle zmeny vo vojenskom zriadení. Ministerstvo vojny a oddelenie námorníctva sa spojili do jedného ministerstva obrany pod ministrom obrany, ktorý riadil aj novovytvorené ministerstvo letectva. Každá z troch pobočiek si však udržiavala svojich vlastných služobných tajomníkov. V roku 1949 bol zákon zmenený a doplnený tak, aby mal minister obrany väčšiu právomoc nad jednotlivými službami a ich tajomníkmi.


8 pozoruhodných historických udalostí, ktoré sa stali v máji

Dominic Sandbrook poukazuje na pozoruhodné udalosti, ktoré sa v histórii stali v máji.

Tento článok bol prvýkrát publikovaný v máji 2015 čísle BBC History Magazine

Táto súťaž je teraz uzavretá

Publikované: 1. mája 2017 o 5:00 hod

4. mája 1926: Generálny štrajk nedokázal paralyzovať Britániu

Pre mnohých ľudí predstavoval prvý celý deň generálnej štrajku 4. mája 1926 zlom v histórii. Po rokoch narastajúceho napätia medzi zamestnávateľmi a odbormi, najmä v uhoľnom priemysle, zjazd odborových zväzov svojich členov nakoniec vykázal. V to prvé ráno stáli doky, továrne a železničné dvory po celej krajine prázdne a tiché. Konzervatívne noviny varovali, že to bude začiatok boľševickej revolúcie. V Blackburne si jeden muž neskôr spomenul, že jeho rodina „ticho sedela v kuchyni a tajila dych a čakala na začiatok revolúcie“.

V celej krajine zavládol zvláštny pocit nereálnosti. Keďže sa verejná doprava zastavila, cesty boli preplnené. "Mlynské komíny prestali dymiť a kolesá sa prestali otáčať," napísala potom jedna žena v Manchestri. "Dlažba a dokonca aj cesty boli preplnené chodcami a vodiči súkromných automobilov ponúkali výťahy s prekvapujúcou veľkorysosťou."

Správy o bojoch prichádzali z dokov, zatiaľ čo vláda nasadila vojakov na doprovod potravinových konvojov. Široko predpovedaná triedna vojna sa však neuskutočnila a generálny štrajk sa nikdy nerozvinul do revolučného povstania. V skutočnosti sa to v porovnaní s turbulenciami v zámorí zmenilo na trochu nekonanie.

V čase, keď to o deväť dní neskôr vyprchalo, to kráľ Juraj V. - ktorý pre svoj postoj k útočníkom kritizoval svojich konzervatívnych ministrov („Skúste žiť zo svojej mzdy, než ich budete súdiť“) - považoval za poctu britskej jednote. "Naša drahá stará krajina môže byť na seba hrdá," napísal si do svojho denníka. "Ukazuje to, akí sme úžasní ľudia."

6. mája 1527: Armáda cisára Svätej ríše rímskej plenila Rím

Na začiatku 16. storočia bolo Taliansko nebezpečným miestom pre život. Polostrov roztrhnutý nekonečnými vojnami medzi francúzskym kráľom Františkom I. a jeho zatrpknutým rivalom Karolom V., španielskym kráľom a cisárom Svätej rímskej ríše, sa stal synonymom pre masakry, lúpeže a rapíny. Nič však nepôsobilo na európsku predstavivosť väčším dojmom než to, čo sa stalo 6. mája 1527, v deň, keď sa cisárske vojsko vrhlo na Rím.

Pytel Ríma nikdy nebol súčasťou plánu Karola V. Jeho jednotky už porazili Francúzov, problém bol v tom, že sa minuli finančné prostriedky - takže veliteľ cisárskej armády, vojvoda z Bourbonu, prakticky stratil kontrolu nad svojimi vlastnými mužmi. Vojvodovi sa iba pred prísľubom koristi zo zajatia Ríma podarilo zabrániť vzbure v plnom rozsahu. A tak sa 6. mája začalo najmenej 20 000 cisárskych vojakov. Vojvoda, oblečený v ochrannom bielom plášti, bol katastrofálne zastrelený a zabitý takmer okamžite - a akékoľvek zdanie disciplíny zmizlo.

Nasledovala orgia plienenia a vandalizmu, keď cisárska armáda zmietla slabý odpor a vandrovala mestom. Vo Vatikáne urobila Švajčiarska garda zúfalé posledné stanovisko, keď pápež Klement VII. Unikol na hrad Sant'Angelo. Boli porazení, kde stáli, ich kapitán zostrelil pred očami pozorujúcej manželky. Cisárske jednotky medzitým plienili kostoly, hrobky a cintoríny. Podľa odhadov bolo zavraždených najmenej 12 000 ľudí. "Nemci boli zlí," povedal jeden kostolník. "Taliani boli horší, Španieli boli najhorší."

6. máj 1840: Penny Black prináša revolúciu v komunikácii v Británii

14. mája 1264: Montfort rozdrvil na Lewes nešťastnú armádu Henricha III

16. mája 1900: Mafekingu sa uľavilo

16. mája 1703: Peter Veľký zakladá svoje meniny

24. mája 1487: Lambert Simnel je v Dubline korunovaný za kráľa

25. mája 1895: Oscar Wilde je odsúdený

Rozhodnutie Oscara Wilda zahájiť urážku na cti proti markýzovi z Queensberry, ktorý ho obvinil z „pózovania somdomitov [sic]“, bolo to najnešťastnejšie, čo kedy urobil.

Súdny proces sa začal 3. apríla 1895 a takmer okamžite bolo zrejmé, že Wilde má vážne problémy. Keď obhajoba oznámila, že našli niekoľko mužských prostitútok, ktoré by svedčili o tom, že mali sex s Wildeom, dramatik prípad odložil - ale aj keď odchádzal zo súdnej siene, úrady vypracovali zatykač na základe obvinenia z hrubá neprístojnosť.

Pri prvom Wildeovom procese, ktorý sa začal 26. apríla, sa porote nepodarilo dosiahnuť verdikt. O tri týždne neskôr sa v Old Bailey začal druhý súdny proces, ktorý stíhal generálny prokurátor liberálnej vlády Sir Frank Lockwood. Wilde neskôr napísal, že Lockwood vydal „strašnú výpoveď - ako niečo z Tacita, ako pasáž v Dante, ako jedno zo Savonarolových obvinení rímskych pápežov“. Toto bolo prehnané: podľa vtedajších štandardov bolo Lockwoodovo záverečné vyhlásenie pozoruhodne zdržanlivé. Je však ľahké pochopiť, prečo bol Wilde taký rozrušený.

Dňa 25. mája predák oznámil verdikt poroty: vinný. Ozvali sa výkriky „Hanba!“ z galérie a Wilde od hrôzy zošedivel. "Nemám zmysel ťa oslovovať." Ľudia, ktorí môžu robiť tieto veci, musia byť skúpi na pocit hanby a nemožno dúfať, že to na nich bude mať nejaký vplyv. Je to najhorší prípad, aký som kedy vyskúšal, “povedal sudca Wills, ktorý odsúdil Wildeho na dva roky tvrdej práce. Bol to, dodal, „najprísnejší trest, ktorý zákon pripúšťa. Podľa môjho názoru je to v takom prípade úplne neadekvátne. “

Ďalšie významné májové výročia

3. máj 1849: V saských Drážďanoch prodemokratickí demonštranti začínajú nešťastné Májové povstanie, často považované za posledné z revolúcií v roku 1848. Po šiestich dňoch pouličných bitiek je revolta potlačená.

12. mája 1364: Po získaní súhlasu pápeža vydáva poľský kráľ Kazimír III. Chartu pre prvú vysokú školu vo svojej krajine, Jagelonskú univerzitu (zobrazenú nižšie)-druhú najstaršiu univerzitu v strednej Európe.

15. máj 1982: Britský torpédoborec HMS Coventry zaútočil na argentínske lietadlo Skyhawk pri pobreží Falklandských ostrovov. Útok si vyžiadal životy 20 členov posádky.

19. mája 1536: Druhá manželka Henricha VIII., Záhadná Anne Boleynová, obvinená z cudzoložstva, incestu a zrady, je popravená v londýnskom Toweri.

26. mája 1805: Napoleon sa hlási k titulu talianskeho kráľa a je korunovaný stredovekou železnou korunou Lombardska v nádhernej milánskej katedrále.

30. máj 1966: NASA o tri dni neskôr vypustila raketu nesiacu lunárny pristávací modul Surveyor 1 a pristála na Mesiaci (na obrázku nižšie). Ide o prvé americké vesmírne plavidlo, ktoré pristálo na mimozemskom telese a ktoré po troch rokoch pripravilo pôdu pre pristátie na Mesiaci.


Theodore Roethke

Theodore Roethke takmer nikomu nepasuje a predstavuje obraz stereotypného vysoko zmýšľajúceho básnika a intelektuála štyridsiatych až šesťdesiatych rokov minulého storočia. Jeho otec sa narodil v Saginawe v Michigane a bol nemeckým prisťahovalcom, ktorý vlastnil a prevádzkoval 25-akrový skleník. Napriek tomu, že ako dieťa veľa čítal a ako stredoškolák nechal preložiť kampaň z Červeného kríža do 26 jazykov, trpel problémami opustenia a straty a nedostatok sebavedomia ho priviedol k snahe byť prijatý. rovesníkmi. Keď mal 14 rokov, jeho otec zomrel na rakovinu a strýko spáchal samovraždu. Navštevoval University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, kde si osvojil tvrdý obraz podobný medveďovi (vážiaci viac ako 225 libier) a dokonca ho fascinovali gangstri. Excentrický a nekonformný & mdashhe sa neskôr nazýval & ldquoodious & rdquo a & ldquounhappy & rdquo & mdashRoethke túžil po priateľovi, s ktorým by sa mohol rozprávať a vyjadrovať svoje ambície. Básnik a spisovateľ James Dickey kedysi Roethkeho označil za najväčšieho zo všetkých amerických básnikov: „Nevidím nikoho iného, ​​kto má takú hlbokú a vnútornú vitalitu, akú dostal Roethke. Whitman bol veľkým básnikom, ale pre Roethkeho nemal konkurenciu. & Rdquo Jeho ťažké detstvo, záchvaty bipolárnej poruchy a neustále hľadanie pravdy prostredníctvom básnickej tvorby viedli k ťažkému životu, ale tiež k vytvoreniu pozoruhodného tela. práce, ktorá by ovplyvnila budúce generácie amerických básnikov pri pátraní po záhadách jedného & rsquos vnútra.

Povedomie o Roethke & rsquos sa v Michigane vyvinulo do rozhodnutia pokračovať v učiteľstve, mdashande poézii a mdashas kariére. Bakalársky a magisterský titul získal na University of Michigan. Fascinácia prírodou, ktorú vo svojej neskoršej poézii tak hlboko skúmal, ho prinútila napísať do bakalárskeho príspevku: & ldquoKeď sa ocitnem sám pod holým nebom, kde človek nie je príliš očividný, & mdashthen som veľmi povznesený a tisíce živých myšlienok a sladkých vízií zaplavuje moje vedomie. & Rdquo Okrem príbehov, esejí a kritiky, ktoré sa od študentov angličtiny bežne očakávajú, začal Roethke v tejto dobe písať poéziu. & ldquoAk môžem písať, čo môžem robiť, & rdquo povedal, a hoci Richard Allen Blessing tvrdil, že napísal primerane dobrú prózu, & rdquo, stále by to zaujímalo bystré oko, aby odhalilo zrelého básnika pod vrstvami vysokoškolského detského tuku. & rdquo Smer k jeho prípadnej kariére sa trochu uvoľnil, keď Roethke po krátkom pôsobení ako študent práva na University of Michigan vypadol & ldquoin hnus & rdquo: & ldquo Nechcel som sa stať obhajcom majetku alebo právnikom spoločnosti, ako to mali všetci moji bratranci na jednej strane rodiny. hotovo. & rdquo Postoj evidentný v tomto rozhodnutí podporil autor životopisov Allana Seagera a rsquos k záveru, že to bolo viac ako nepotlačiteľné vedomie života, ktoré ho viedlo k výberu poézie ako kariéry: & ldquo Bolo by lichotivé nazvať to odvahou presnejšie, zdá sa, že to bol nahnevaný, vzdorný, pruský nátlak, ktorý ho viedol k jeho rozhodnutiu. & rdquo

Prvých 15 rokov spisovateľskej kariéry Roethke & rsquos, od jeho začiatkov ako vysokoškoláka po vydanie Deň otvorených dverí, tvorilo & ldquolengthy a bolestivé učňovské vzdelávanie & rdquo pre mladého spisovateľa. Počas tejto doby krátko navštevoval Harvardskú právnickú školu, kde študoval u básnika Roberta Hillyera, ale kvôli Veľkej hospodárskej kríze právnickú školu zanechal. Pri kultivácii svojho básnického prejavu v 30. rokoch sa Roethke vo veľkej miere spoliehal na T.S. Eliot & rsquos verí, že & ldquothe jediný spôsob, ako manipulovať s akýmkoľvek druhom anglických veršov, [je] asimiláciou a napodobňovaním. & Rdquo S ohľadom na tento model, sám Roethke kedysi napísal & ldquoimitation, vedomá imitácia, je jednou z veľkých metód, možno the spôsob učenia sa písať. . Posledným triumfom je to, čo jazyk robí, nie to, čo môže básnik urobiť alebo čo predviesť. & Rdquo Vo svojej knihe Ozvučné drevo Theodora RoethkehoJenijoy La Belle zhrnul hlavnú výzvu Roethke & rsquos ako & ldquoconscious imitator & rdquo: & ldquoModerný básnik by sa mal odkloniť od romantického konceptu osobného prejavu. . V skutočnosti musí pochodovať históriou poézie a písať básne minulosti a mdash, aby mohol na konci svojej cesty vyjsť ako básnik, ktorý absorboval tradíciu a ktorý tak môže urobiť jeden krok vpred a pridať k tejto tradícii. & Rdquo

Úloha Roethke & rsquos nebola jednoduchá. Okrem dlhov voči takým súčasníkom, akými sú W.H. Auden, Louise Bogan, Babette Deutsch a William Carlos Williams, medzi jeho rozsiahle a pestré básnické tradície patrili Wordsworth, Blake, Christopher Smart, Donne, Sir John Davies, Whitman, Yeats, Eliot a Dante.

Spolu s týmito vplyvmi boli zdrojom veľkej časti poézie Roethke & rsquos notebooky, ktoré si svedomito uchovával po celý život. Mieru oddanosti jeho remeslu nájdete v jeho vyhlásení & ldquoI & rsquom vždy fungujúcom, & rdquo a skutočne jeho vrecká boli zdanlivo vždy plné záznamov pôsobivých myšlienok a rozhovorov. Jeho menej spontánne úvahy si našli miesto na pracovnom stole jeho poézie a zápisníkov mdashhi. Napriek tomu, že Roethke nie je všeobecne považovaný za plodného spisovateľa, presnejší popis času a úsilia vynaloženého na vypracovanie jeho verša je zrejmý v tejto rozsiahlej akumulácii kritiky (seba i ostatných), abstraktných myšlienok, úvah o detstve a, samozrejme, poézia. Vo svojom životopise Roethkeho Sklenený dom, Allan Seager odhadoval, že niekedy boli publikované iba tri percentá básnických liniek vo viac ako dvesto zošitoch.

Introspektívny Roethke oznámil svoje odvážne tvrdenie, že sa použije ako materiál pre svoje umenie prostredníctvom názvu svojho prvého publikovaného zväzku, Deň otvorených dverí. Nie je prekvapením, že kniha odráža napodobňujúce a tradičné prvky jeho & ldquoconscious imitácie & rdquo učení.

Bez ohľadu na obmedzenia zrejmé v Deň otvorených dverí„Seager poukázal na to, že väčšina recenzií bola dobrá a tie, ktoré obsahovali nepriaznivú kritiku, mlčky uznali, že ide o prácu skutočného básnika a nie začiatočníka. & Rdquo Obdivujte schopnosť Roethke & rsquos & ldquorare & rdquo & ldquoremember a transformovať pocit poníženia [& lsquoof zašpinený a ponížený životom & rsquo] na niečo krásne, & rdquo zavolal Auden Deň otvorených dverí & ldquoúplne úspešný. & rdquo V ďalšej recenzii knihy Elizabeth Drew cítila, že básne majú kontrolovanú milosť pohybu a jeho obrazy sú maximálne presné a zároveň vyjadrujú akúsi gnómickú múdrosť, ktorá je mu vlastná, keď dosiahne askeziu kontemplácie. a u dnešných básnikov veľmi neobvyklá, náhradná prísnosť jazyka. & rdquo

Roethke držal recenzie Auden & rsquos aj Drew & rsquos, ako aj ďalšie priaznivé reakcie na jeho prácu. Keďže zostal citlivý na to, ako by sa na jeho poéziu mali pozerať rovesníci a ostatní, ktorých si váži, zostal citlivý aj na svoje introspektívne snahy ako zdroj svojej tvorivosti. Kritici pochopiteľne chápali seba samého ako hlavnú starosť o básne Roethke a rsquos. Iní však introspekciu Roethke & rsquos interpretovali pozitívnejšie a tvrdili, že je to podstata jeho práce. Ralph J. Mills nazval tento vlastný záujem a považoval za hlavnú vec umeleckého bádania a poznania za záujem, ktorý dodáva básňam pocit osobnej naliehavosti, ba priam nutnosti. & Rdquo Stanley Poss tiež ohlásil Roethkeho ako & ldquoa testovací prípad spisovateľa, ktorého záujem sám je taký nepretržitý, taký neúprosný, že sa sám transformuje a nakoniec sa stane odstredivým. Sotva sociálnou alebo politickou kosťou v tele sa dotýka celého nášho ja, nášho strachu a lásky k našim otcom. naše potešenie zo života rastlín a zvierat, naše radosti zo žien, ktoré majú viac strán ako tulene, naše nočné strachy, naše obavy z imanencie. & rdquo

Bez ohľadu na to, či je táto introspekcia slabosťou alebo silnou stránkou jeho poézie, intenzita, ktorú venoval výučbe, ukazuje evidentné znepokojenie mimo seba. Roethke, mimoriadne obľúbený profesor, dokázal prinútiť svojich študentov, aby sa podelili o svoje nadšenie pre poéziu. Bol nielen obľúbený, pretože často rozšíril vyučovanie do miestneho baru, ale bol jedinečný, ako to ukázala populárna anekdota z jednej z jeho tried na Michiganskej štátnej univerzite: Stimulovať svoju triedu pri zadávaní popisu fyzického konania, Roethke povedal svojim študentom, aby opísali čin, ktorý sa chystal vykonať. Potom vyliezol von oknom triedy a naklonil sa pozdĺž rímsy, pričom do každého z okolitých okien urobil tváre.

Takéto akcie zodpovedali tomu, čo Roethke, veľmi náročný učiteľ, očakával od svojich študentov a rsquo poézie. Oliver Everette si naňho spomenul, keď zvolal, & ldquoYou & rsquove musí mať rytmus. Ak chcete tancovať nahí v otvorenom bare s kriedou v pupku, nezaujíma ma to! Musíte mať rytmus. & Rdquo Ďalší študent si ho pamätal, ako povedal: & ldquoProsím, dovoľte mi vidieť dôkazy aktívnej mysle. Nenechajte sa tak strážiť a sledujte, ako sa vám rozprúdi myseľ. & Rdquo A Roethke zaujal básnika Davida Wagonera veršom & ldquomotion sa rovná emóciám. & Rdquo Okrem Wagonera patria medzi najznámejších študentov Roethke & rsquos básnici Richard Hugo, James Wright, Carolyn Kizer, Jack Gilbert.

Toto energické úsilie o učiteľskú a spisovateľskú kariéru občas pochopiteľne ovplyvnilo jeho pohľad. Časť jeho frustrácie pramenila z množstva času, ktorý učenie trvalo. & lsquom Vyučovanie dobre, & rdquo napísal v roku 1947, & ldquo & mdashif Môžem usúdiť podľa reakcie & mdashbut haven & rsquot urobil jednu zatratenú vec sám. Nie je možné žiť a prejsť od vyčerpania k vyčerpaniu. & Rdquo Neskôr sa mu únava zdala ešte zásadnejšia. & ldquoMyslím, že tam môžem povedať, že skutočne potrebujem, aby som sa na nejaký čas nedostal z vyučovania, & rdquo napísal William Carlos Williams v roku 1949. & ldquoI & rsquom sa do toho chytil: príliš posadnutý vytváraním preliačin u týchto malých sučiek. Tí najlepší ma stále nabádajú, aby som s tým skončil: nestojí to za to, atď. Atď. & Rdquo

Boli chvíle, keď Roethke nedokázal udržať žiadnu podobu rovnováhy. Jeho dobre propagované mentálne poruchy boli, aspoň čiastočne, výsledkom jeho prechodu z vyčerpania do vyčerpania. & Rdquo Allan Seager vysvetlil zjavnú nevyhnutnosť prvého útoku (1935): & ldquo Neexistovalo žiadne veľké tajomstvo o jeho odchode do nemocnice & mdashhe mal takmer zničil sa v šialenom pokuse ísť bez spánku, tvrdo na všetkom pracovať, jesť iba jedno alebo dve jedlá denne, pretože mal taký záujem o tento experiment a experiment, ktorý robil vo svojich triedach. & Rdquo Roethke sám povedal Rolfe Humphries (s tým, čo poznamenal Seager je & ldquoperfektívne racionálne & rdquo vysvetlenie), že dôvod jeho choroby, ktorá ho nakoniec priviedla do sanatoria Mercywood v Ann Arbor, & ldquow je jeho vlastná hlúposť v snahe žiť zrazu & lsquoa čistý a pracovitý život. & rsquo & rdquo

O desať rokov neskôr, v roku 1945, utrpel druhé zrútenie a v nasledujúcom desaťročí do roku 1958 sa stávali stále častejšie, navštevoval terapeutické sedenia šesťkrát týždenne.
Napriek problémom s duševnou chorobou zostal Roethke neoceniteľným a veľmi váženým členom univerzitnej fakulty. Napriek tomu, že Seager priznal, že príčina problémov Roethke & rsquos & ldquomay spočívala v chémii jeho krvi a nervov, & rdquo niektorí tvrdili, že ich možno pripísať jeho intenzívnemu sebapoznávaniu a že kvôli svojim chorobám sa dokázal lepšie vidieť. Kenneth Burke ukázal, že tým, že sa Roethke ochotne ponoril do konfliktov svojho detstva, urýchlil jeho druhé zrútenie, povedal jeden psychiater, & ldquoMyslím si, že jeho problémy boli len prevádzkové náklady, ktoré zaplatil za to, že bol jeho básnikom. & Rdquo Nepopierajúc osobnú tragédiu Roethkeova a rsquosova choroba, tvrdila Rosemary Sullivanová, a ldquohe dokázal vo svojej skúsenosti vidieť potenciálny pohľad na ďalšie prahy vedomia. & Rdquo Tieto názory korešpondujú s predpokladom Roethke & rsquos o hľadaní pravdy: & ldquo Na to, aby ste išli vpred (ako duchovný muž), musíte najskôr vrátiť sa. & rdquo In Stratený syn (1948) preskúmal tento vzorec v titulnej básni a v jej troch sprievodných skladbách, ako vysvetlil Sullivan: & ldquo Sú to zúfalé básne, z ktorých každá začína negatívnym, život popierajúcim solipsizmom, ktorý sa postupne a bolestne presahuje, až kým básnik nedosiahne nadšenú skúsenosť celistvosť a vzťah. & rdquo V rovnakom duchu skúmal Roethke temnotu svojho detstva v & ldquoThe Greenhouse Poems & rdquo of Stratený syn.

Korene skleníkovej sekvencie ležali v rozsiahlych skleníkoch, ktoré vlastnili otec a strýko Roethke & rsquos. Pre Roethkeho, ktorého Seager opísal ako & ldquothin, poddimenzovaného a chorľavého ako chlapca, očividne inteligentného, ​​ale plachého a tiež odlišného, ​​& rdquo sa skleníky stali zdrojom ambivalencie: & ldquoBy pre mňa boli, uvedomujem si teraz, nebo i peklo, druh trópov vytvorených v divokom podnebí Michiganu, kde strohí nemeckí Američania premenili lásku k poriadku a svoju desivú účinnosť na niečo krásne. & rdquo So skleníkom pri meraní účinkov detstva bol spojený jeho otec, nemecký Američan, ktorý zomrel, keď Roethke bolo 14. Sullivan vysvetlil paradoxný vzťah otec-syn: & ldquoOtto Roethke predstavil exteriér autoritatívneho poriadku a disciplíny [ale] v skleníku vyjadril hlbokú citlivosť na krásu prírody. & rdquo Zjavná tendencia Otta skrývať to & ldquovulnerable jadro, & rdquo Sullivan dodal, bránilo Roethke porozumieť svojmu otcovi. Rochke sa cítil byť ohrozený a opustený a zaplietol sa do smrti svojho otca, smrti, ktorá zabránila ich postupnému zmiereniu. Sullivan ďalej teoretizoval, že & ldquofrom z následného pocitu vlastnej nedostatočnosti sa zdá, že Roethke získal bremena strachu a viny, ktoré ho prenasledovali celý život. & Rdquo Určite jeho spisy a texty z esejí napísaných na University of Michigan k básni & ldquoOtto & rdquo v Ďaleké pole& mdashuphold Seager & rsquos poznamenávajú, že & ldquoall jeho život spomienka sa vznášala nad ním. & rdquo

Roethke sa skúmaním rastlín, kvetov a tvorov pokúsil prepojiť svet skleníka s & ldquoinner svetom a rdquo človeka. & ldquo Zmyselný svet skleníka je prvou záhradou, z ktorej sme všetci vzišli, & rdquo vysvetlil Richard Blessing & ldquo a pokus o jeho pochopenie, pripomenutie si energií tohto miesta, nás všetkých zaujíma v osamelom chlade našich postelí pre dospelých. & rdquo James G. Southworth súhlasil s tým, že hľadanie minulosti je bolestivé, ako to ukazujú úvodné riadky & ldquoCuttings (neskôr) & rdquo: &ldquoThis urge, wrestle, resurrection of dry sticks, / Cut stems struggling to put down feet, / What saint strained so much, / Rose on such lopped limbs to new life?&rdquo Ultimately the message spelled from the greenhouse sequence, as interpreted by Blessing, &ldquoreads that life is dynamic, not static that the energy of the moment from the past preserves it, in part, in the present that experience is a continuum, not a collection of dead instant preserved and pinned on walls we have left behind.&rdquo

Kým The Lost Son focused on a child&rsquos struggle for identity, Roethke made great advances in establishing his own identity as a poet during this time. Michael Harrington felt &ldquoRoethke found his own voice and central themes in The Lost Son&rdquo and Stanley Kunitz saw a &ldquoconfirmation that he was in full possession of his art and of his vision.&rdquo Blessing echoed this praise when he wrote: &ldquoTo my mind, the transformation of Theodore Roethke from a poet of &lsquolyric resourcefulness, technical proficiency and ordered sensibility&rsquo to a poet of &lsquoindomitable creativeness and audacity . difficult, heroic, moving and profoundly disquieting&rsquo is one of the most remarkable in American literary history.&rdquo

Roethke&rsquos next book of poetry, Praise to the End! (1951), followed much the same pattern set in The Lost Son by continuing &ldquohis most heroic enterprise,&rdquo the sequence of interior monologues initiated in the title poem of The Lost Son. Roethke himself offered these suggestions on how to read the new book: &ldquoYou will have no trouble if you approach these poems as a child would, naively, with your whole being awake, your faculties loose and alert. (A large order, I daresay!) Počúvaj to them, for they are written to be heard, with the themes often coming alternately, as in music, and usually a partial resolution at the end. Each poem . is complete in itself yet each in a sense is a stage in a kind of struggle out of the slime part of a slow spiritual progress an effort to be born, and later, to become something more.&rdquo

After the intense explorations of The Lost Son a Praise to the End! &ldquoit is not surprising,&rdquo as W.D. Snodgrass pointed out, &ldquothat Roethke might at this point need to step back and regather his forces. He did just that in the group of &lsquoNew Poems&rsquo in The Waking (1954).&rdquo This next book of Roethke&rsquos won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, and has long since been considered one of the most important books of contemporary American poetry. The title poem, &ldquoThe Waking,&rdquo has been one of the most anthologized American poems of the 20th-century.

Roethke&rsquos marriage, his readings in philosophy and religion, and his feelings of anxiety and illness are, according to Malkoff, the most important events projected in the &ldquoNew Poems&rdquo of Words for the Wind. His love poems, which first appeared in The Waking, earned their own section in the new book, &ldquowere a distinct departure from the painful excavations of the monologues and in some respects a return to the strict stanzaic forms of the earliest work,&rdquo said Stanley Kunitz. Ralph Mills described &ldquothe amatory verse&rdquo as a blend of &ldquoconsideration of self with qualities of eroticism and sensuality but more important, the poems introduce and maintain a fascination with something beyond the self, that is, with the figure of the other, or the beloved woman.&rdquo Roethke&rsquos &ldquosurrender to sensualism,&rdquo claimed Robert Boyers, is not permanent: &ldquoHe eventually discovers that the love of woman is not the ultimate mode for him.&rdquo

As Malkoff noted, Roethke is not a thoroughly consistent poet. &ldquoHe moves from utter despair, to resignation, to mystic faith beyond mysticism and back to despair. We shall not find in his poems the development of a systematic philosophy there emerges rather the complex figure of a man directly confronting the limitations of his existence with none of life&rsquos possibilities . excluded.&rdquo Words for the Wind wavers in this way when, in Kunitz&rsquos words, &ldquothe love poems gradually dissolve into the death poems.&rdquo The book does conclude with &ldquoThe Dying Man&rdquo and &ldquoMeditations of an Old Woman,& rdquo but these poems are more than gloomy contemplations of death: Blessing believed &ldquoThe Dying Man&rdquo (dedicated to Roethke&rsquos spiritual father, Yeats) &ldquoremains a poem about the creative possibilities inherent in the very shapelessness of death&rdquo Malkoff thought &ldquoMeditations of an Old Woman&rdquo &ldquoprovides a kind of frame of reference for the consideration of life, and which often reappearing, is never far from the poem&rsquos surface. . [Ultimately,] Words for the Wind, read from cover to cover, is the spiritual autobiography of a man whose excessive sensitivity to his experience magnifies rather than distorts man&rsquos universal condition.&rdquo

Roethke earned much of this magnified vision with an understanding of the mysticism that pervades Words for the Wind (1958) a The Far Field (1964), which both won the National Book Award for Poetry. Heavily influenced by Evelyn Underhill&rsquos Mysticism, many of his later poems follow her psychological progression, as outlined by Sullivan: &ldquoThey begin with the painful apprehension of personal insufficiency, aggravated by the awareness of the possibility of a deeper reality. This is followed by a desire for purification through self-castigation and mortification, which Underhill calls the painful descent into the &lsquocell of knowledge.&rsquo This leads to illumination, a sudden breakthrough to a heightened visionary joy in the awakening of transcendental consciousness. These are only the first three, as it were, secular stages of mystical insight he never laid claim to the last stages which lead to union with Absolute Being.&rdquo

William Heyen emphasized that Roethke was not one who dedicated &ldquohis life to educating himself to achieve union with God. Rather, Roethke was an artist who experienced moments of deep religious feeling and almost inexpressible illumination. His choice was not traditional Christianity or atheism, but a reliance upon the mystic perceptions of his own imagination.&rdquo In Sequence, Sometimes Metaphysical, for example, Roethke defined his focus as &ldquoa hunt, a drive toward God an effort to break through the barrier of rational experience.&rdquo McMichael, however, found a paradox involved in such an effort: &ldquoThe more he thinks about that thing [something other than himself] the less likely he is to know it as it really is for as soon as he begins to acquire for him any of the qualities that his conceptual faculty is ready to impose upon it, his intuition and love of it are lost.&rdquo Roethke does reach points of ecstasy in his poems, though, and Heyen defended him against critics who have charged that his joy is superficial and too easily attained: &ldquoIt is important to realize that the happiness achieved in any Roethke poem . is not one based on reason. . Armed with his study of Underhill and the mystics she discusses Roethke has found his rationale . he can rock irrationally between light and dark, can go by feeling where he has to go.&rdquo

Admittedly in retrospect, Seager reflected on the years preceding The Far Field and Roethke&rsquos death in 1963: &ldquoThe last years of Ted&rsquos life, as we look back on them knowing they were the last, seem to have a strange air of unconscious preparation. As the fabric of his body begins to give way, the best part of his mind, his poetry, . strives toward a mystical union with his Father. But this was unconscious. I don&rsquot think he was at all aware that he was getting ready to go. He had too much work in hand, too much projected, yet the last poems seem prophetic: they read like last poems.&rdquo Perceiving a similar pattern in The Far Field, W.D. Snodgrass wrote that &ldquothese poems, recording that withdrawal [as in &lsquoThe Longing&rsquo], also, I think suffer from it. The language grows imprecise with pain. . Metrically, too, one has a sense of discouragement and withdrawal. . More and more, Roethke&rsquos late poems seem to have lost their appetite, their tolerance for that anguish of concreteness.&rdquo

The Far Field, which won the National Book Award in 1965, contained two sequences representing earlier themes and images, as well as &ldquoNorth American Sequence&rdquo a Sequence, Sometimes Metaphysical. According to Sullivan, Roethke wished to be remembered by the last poems in the latter sequence. Roethke himself wrote that &ldquoin spite of all the muck and welter, the dreck of these poems [in Sequence, Sometimes Metaphysical], I count myself among the happy poets: I proclaim once more a condition of joy.&rdquo Indeed for those distressed by the tragic self-implications of his statement&mdash&rdquoThere is nothing more disconcerting than when a rich nature thins into despair&rdquo&mdashthese last poems, in celebrating the richness of nature and the poet&rsquos &ldquocapacity to face up to genuine mystery,&rdquo erase the despair. His last lines read: &ldquoAnd everything comes to One, / As we dance on, dance on, dance on.&rdquo

Roethke&rsquos death in 1963, of a heart attack while swimming in a friend&rsquos pool, was &ldquoan incalculable loss to American Literature,&rdquo wrote Ralph Mills. While the poet was drinking much and suffering in his later years from a combination of ailments, including arthritis, bursitis, and periods of manic excitement, his poetry was reaching its peak and earned this praise from James Dickey: &ldquoRoethke seems to me the finest poet now writing in English. I[say] this with a certain fierceness, knowing that I have to put him up against Eliot, Pound, Graves, and a good many others of high rank. I do it cheerfully, however. . I think Roethke is the finest poet not so much because of his beautifully personal sense of form . but because of the way he sees and feels the aspects of life which are compelling to him.&rdquo

Publikovanie Zozbierané básne in 1966 brought renewed interest in Roethke and prompted illuminating overviews of his work. David Ferry felt &ldquohis seriousness is frequently too solemnly serious, his lyrical qualities too lyrically lyrical. His mystical vein often seems willed, forced. . And yet Roethke is a very interesting and important poet. For one thing there is . the brilliance there [in Praise to the End!] with which he uses imitations of children&rsquos voices, nursery rhymes, his beautiful sense of the lives of small creatures, the shifting rhythms and stanza forms. . [And, in The Far Field] there are signs . of a new and promising expansiveness and tentativeness. . For the reader, the pity is not to be able to see where this would have taken him.&rdquo Karl Malkoff wrote, &ldquoThough not definite, Roethke: Collected Poems is a major book of poetry. It reveals the full extent of Roethke&rsquos achievement: his ability to perceive reality in terms of the tensions between inner and outer worlds, and to find a meaningful system of metaphor with which to communicate this perception. &hellip He is one of our finest poets, a human poet in a world that threatens to turn man into an object.&rdquo

Roethke was altogether human, both in creating &ldquothe most exhaustive, vital, and vivid reports&rdquo we have of a soul in the several agonies normally recorded in one human life,&rdquo and in impressing &ldquohis friends and readers profoundly as a human being.&rdquo His appreciation for all life is evident in his statement, &ldquoIf I have a complex, it&rsquos a full-life complex.&rdquo Roethke lived energetically, most notably through a devotion to his teaching and through the introspection necessary to his poetry. At the same time, it is generally acknowledged that he paid for his tremendous mental and physical energy with his breakdowns. Thus, as Snodgrass said, one can view Roethke&rsquos career &ldquowith an astonished awe, yet with sadness.&rdquo


The State of the Ostheer - May 1942

Príspevok od HistoryGeek2019 » 24 Dec 2019, 15:16

Od Moscow to Stalingrad: Decision in the East, Chapter 14:

Even though the Eastern Front had received 1.1 million replacements since 22 June 1941, it was short 625,000 men as of 1 May 1942. Army Group South had 50 percent of its original infantry strength Army Groups Center and North each 35 percent. Army Group South could be fully replenished by the time the summer offensive began, but it would take until August to bring Center and North up to 55 percent of their original infantry strengths. Reserves in the form of new units could not be created. All of the men, weapons, and equipment becoming available in the summer, including the 1923 class of recruits, would have to be used to replace losses. The forces on the Eastern Front would have a solid core of veterans, but they would have to absorb large numbers of what formerly would have been regarded as underage and overage recruits, and owing to the losses during the winter, they would be short on experienced officers and noncommissioned officers.

The Germans' own count was 3.9 million men in the ground forces, distributed as follows: 2.6 million (allies not counted) on the Eastern Front proper, 212,000 in the occupied Soviet territory, 150,000 in Finland, and 1.3 million in the occupied territories outside the Soviet Union, in the Replacement Army in Germany, and in North Africa.

During the winter, the forces on the Eastern Front had lost nearly 7,000 artillery pieces ranging from 37-mm. antitank guns to 210-mm. howitzers. The new production, restarted in January, could not replace more than part of them. Of close to 75,000 motor transport vehicles lost, only 7,500 had been replaced another 25,000 could be secured in Germany, but the absolute deficit would still be 42,500. More than 179,000 horses had died, and only 20,000 new animals had been secured. The 176 million gallons of motor fuel and 390,000 tons of ammunition consumed had cut deep into the stockpiles, which would therefore be proportionately smaller in 1942. The conclusion was, "The shortages cannot, for the time being, be covered by new production or by rebuilding. This will compel cutbacks and sharp emphasis on priorities in all areas."

As an "accomplishment" in sustaining firepower in spite of curtailed production, the army had sent to the Eastern Front 725,000 rifles, 27,000 machine guns, 2,700 antitank guns, and 559 pieces of light and 350 pieces of heavy field artillery. The weapons requirements for Army Group South would be "substantially" met by the time operations resumed. Army Groups Center and North would have enough infantry weapons to arm the troops they had, but their artillery batteries would have to be reduced from 4 to 3 guns and some of those would have to be old or captured pieces. All told, 3,300 tanks would be on hand in the East, 360 less than in June 1941, but heavier armament would make up the difference.

The air force reported some decline in numbers of aircraft, compensated for by newer models, better armament, and more experienced crews.51 In fact, the air strength in the East, 2,750 planes, would not be substantially less than it had been in June 1941 (2,770 planes), and a larger proportion (1,500) would be assigned to support Army Group South

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Príspevok od HistoryGeek2019 » 24 Dec 2019, 15:17

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Príspevok od HistoryGeek2019 » 24 Dec 2019, 15:34

What stands out the most is the appalling state of the German infantry: Army Group South had 50 percent of its original infantry strength Army Groups Center and North each 35 percent. And this was despite having received 1.1 million replacements since June 22 1941.

I couldn't find specific casualty information in this book, but Glantz in When Titans Clashed lists German casualties as 522,833 by September 28, 1941. Stahel puts total German 1941 casualties at 830,903, of which 302,595 were killed. Stahel also lists 262,524 casualties for November 26, 1941, to February 28, 1942. Retreat from Moscow (p. 138).

Looking at the dreadful state of the German army in May 1942, with the United States entering the war, and the Soviets continuing to field a massive army, and the Eastern Front more or less stabilized, it seems the war was already lost for Germany. The OstHeer was too weak to do anything offensively in more than one sector, and that would never be enough to knock out the Soviet Union. Germany's severe manpower shortage meant that it couldn't replace casualties or ever hope to get back to its June 1941 strength, and German industrial output could never match that of the Allies.

With the benefit of hindsight, it also shows the folly of Operation Barbarossa. Throwing away over half of your entire country's infantry strength in the bottomless pit of Russia was never a good idea.

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Príspevok od Čl » 25 Dec 2019, 21:05

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Príspevok od Hiryu- » 26 Dec 2019, 01:06

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Príspevok od ljadw » 26 Dec 2019, 10:22

With the benefit of hindsight, it also shows the folly of Operation Barbarossa. Throwing away over half of your entire country's infantry strength in the bottomless pit of Russia was never a good idea.

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Príspevok od Peter89 » 26 Dec 2019, 14:04

With the benefit of hindsight, it also shows the folly of Operation Barbarossa. Throwing away over half of your entire country's infantry strength in the bottomless pit of Russia was never a good idea.

There were about a million alternatives.

1. Sue for peace with the British Empire
2. All out attack on the British Empire
3. Coordinate the Barbarossa with Japan
4. Coordinate the Barbarossa with minor Axis allies properly
5. Launch the Barbarossa later
6. Reshape the mainland Europe, restoring neutrality here and there, thus increasing the pressure on the British
7. Attack the British Empire's colonies
8. Attack neutral countries such as Spain, Sweden or Turkey
9. Prepare for a prolonged war against the British Empire, allocate more resources for the aerial and naval war
10. Speed up R&D, thus gaining a technological edge (rockets, small arms, armoured vehicles, jet planes)
11. Training and equipment of small, specialized forces like Fallschirmjägers and such.

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Príspevok od ljadw » 26 Dec 2019, 14:28

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Príspevok od Peter89 » 26 Dec 2019, 17:35

These are all better choices than attacking your ally. And choices.

1. Hardly. The German offer was too much to swallow for the British, and the Germans paid no attention to the long term coexistence of European nations. Britain fought on because they understood that they stand the best chance to win there and then. If they give Germany some room to breathe, they'd get too strong.
2. It was never tried. See Sealion.
3. Japan never refused, and they considered to break the NAP with the SU (April 13, 1941) many times. They decided to attack the relatively lightly guarded European colonies in the south.
4. There's plenty of proof for that. All except the Romanian army was properly mobilized, the technology was not shared with the minor axis nations, etc. Thus, a lot of production capacity in Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Romania, etc. was producing obsolate and useless equipment.
5. There's no proof for that. As you always like to claim, the Barbarossa had to be won with the opening moves, preferably west of the D-D line. If the Soviets could build up more troops and put them on the frontiers, it wouldn't matter as much as the Axis buildup.
6. Not at all
7. It could be done and it was done (Malta, Egypt, Iraq/Syria/Lebanon), but not with proper forces, as they were tied down in the SU
8. Germany didn't hesitate to attack its allies either.
9. Against Britain alone? Sotva.
10. But soon it did.
11. Probably the best type of unit to attack the British Isles.

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Príspevok od ljadw » 26 Dec 2019, 18:29

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Príspevok od Peter89 » 26 Dec 2019, 19:34

3. YES. Please read any source about Kantokuen. How would it not help Germany.
7. You can't be serious here. The eastern front tied down most of the Wehrmacht, the Mediterran theatre was always of secondary importance. Yes, Malta itself can't solve the German problems in the Med, but capturing it would certainly solve some.
9. It's a pure speculation how long a diplomatic Germany could prolong the American entry into the war. Even with a DOW they didn't really show up in numbers up until 1943.
11. We are talking about alternatives to the Barbarossa, and not about alternatives to July 1940.

By the way your, your whole argumentation is somewhat rigged. My initial statement was that Barbarossa had a lot of alternatives. I presented you a few, and those alternatives are independent of the operational FJ units in mid-1940 or the possible American entry to the war. The Germans decision makers had a lot of choices, and they choose poorly.

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Príspevok od ljadw » 26 Dec 2019, 22:58

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Príspevok od Peter89 » 27 Dec 2019, 09:46

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Príspevok od ljadw » 27 Dec 2019, 12:36

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Príspevok od TheMarcksPlan » 22 Jan 2020, 03:55

Ziemke's book was published in the later '80's - after prevailing narratives had been set but before interesting archival data emerged post-SU. Were I writing a click-bait review I'd say its commission was a cushy government job (official Army history) with little incentive to dig deeply or fashion interesting takes (the latter being something of a blessing, considering the range of quality for "interesting" takes).

The first thing to notice about Ziemke's portrayal of the May 42 Ostheer: Against the supposedly-better-situated RKKA it advanced nearly

800km, destroying numerous armies in the process, panicking Stalin and Soviet leadership (not one step back!, blocking detachments), and convincing many in the West that the SU was done (Eisenhower and Joint Chiefs expected Soviet collapse by the end of '42).

How does he spin that narrative so well? First, he was just following that well-set narrative that Germany was hopelessly outmatched by the SU. If you start from that position, it's easy to find facts to match it. Digging in a bit:

-Ziemke states (accurately) that Germany could replace only

1/3 of its Mot.V losses. He doesn't place those losses in relevant context, however: Barbarossa began with 600k trucks,

50k halftracks, >100k "Light transports", and thousands of AFV's. Even taking just the trucks as a baseline, a 45,000 decline in stock is only 7.5%. Given the lower manpower, Ostheer actually was more motorized in 42 than in 41. Soviet truck losses must have far exceeded Ostheer's, while RKKA started with only

450k trucks to supply a larger army, had lower domestic truck production, and LL wasn't a big factor in trucks yet. So Ostheer's Mot.V situation was certainly far better in 42 than RKKA's in absolute vehicles, in vehicles/soldier, and in maintaining motorization relative to 41.

-Ziemke highlights the burn of 176mil gallons of motor fuel. This is either wrong or deceptive. At 7lbs/gal, that's only 560,000t of fuel or

8% of Germany's fuel resources. I have to believe he made a mistake there, as Ostheer fuel burn in the winter alone nearly matched the figure he gives. Either way, it's fishy/sloppy.

-Ziemke says the Ostheer was "short" some hundreds of thousands. He doesn't specify what "short" means but presumably it's actual strength vs. authorized strength of the Ostheer's formations. What he doesn't make clear is that it was worse for RKKA: He states that their divisions had 5-7,000 men but the authorized strength of RKKA rifle divisions at that time was around 12,000. So the 293 Red divisions were "short" 1.5 - 2 million men!

-The choice of May 42 is conspicuous as well. German replacements surged during June-August, first to support Blau and then to rebuild AG's N/C in anticipation of Soviet attacks. After all the bleeding of 42, the Ostheer had 3.1mil on its roles in July 43 ahead of Kursk. Liedtke's "Enduring the Whirlwind" - an easy Kindle reference for topline Eastern Front stats - has a good discussion of the Ostheer's recovery during Summer 42 - just after Ziemke's timeframe. Unlike SU, Germany valued training almost irrationally and would have withheld replacements until the final moment to provide more training - a fact that I suspect Ziemke is exploiting in his choice of May 42 strength analysis.

None of that it is to dispute what you say re May 42 broadly: Germany had no chance of "winning" in any Nazi sense of the term by then. But the Ostheer still overmatched RKKA and its qualitative edge had actually increased due to the "peasant-ification" of the Red Army over the war years. Pre-war recruits were proportionately higher-educated urbanites who had at least seen things like radios and maps before, and had adult experience in professional roles requiring at least some independent analysis (non-political of course) and personal initiative. The poor peasants (both senses of that phrase), lacking both these modern experiences, were like time-travelers into the modern world via the war. It's hard for folks to believe that the RKKA got qualitatively worse (tactically) as the war went on but the facts are pretty clear on that issue IMO.

David Stahel has emphasized in interviews (online somewhere, don't remember ATM) that it's still the case that very little is actually known about Eastern Front combat. Most authors have gone off post-war memoirs for the German perspective (out of laziness) and lacked access to Soviet documents (Soviet and now Putin-ite secrecy). Ziemke's work cites mostly the Army- and Army-Group-level diaries and correspondence there's so much more out there to dig into. We probably disagree on Stahel's overall merits. IMO he's more towards the industrious/stupid quadrant than I'd prefer (ok that's excessively mean but like portraying Kiev as the death-knell of the panzer forces when they wrecked a million Soviets a few weeks later during Typhoon. ), but I take his point: most well-regarded English-language authors on the Eastern Front have only an inkling of what really happened there.


26 May 1942 - History

The Congress of Racial Equality

"Making Equality a Reality for All"

Author's Note: The History of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) is essentially part of the history of the civil rights movement in America. CORE played such an important role in so many critical milestones in the civil rights movement that to tell the history of CORE without referencing those milestones would be out of context and incomplete. For that reason we have included links within this text to descriptions of some of the major civil rights events that CORE either led or participated in. We have also included links to short biographies of some of the key individuals who had significant influence on the focus and direction of CORE as the organization evolved over the years.

The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded in 1942 as the Committee of Racial Equality by an interracial group of students in Chicago- Bernice Fisher , James R. Robinson , James L. Farmer, Jr. , Joe Guinn , George Houser , and Homer Jack . . Many of these students were members of the Chicago branch of the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), a pacifist organization seeking to change racist attitudes. The founders of CORE were deeply influenced by Mahatma Gandhi's teachings of nonviolent resistance.

CORE started as a nonhierarchical, decentralized organization funded entirely by the voluntary contributions of its members. The organization was initially co-led by white University of Chicago student George Houser and black student James Farmer. In 1942, CORE began protests against segregation in public accommodations by organizing sit-ins. It was also in 1942 that CORE expanded nationally. James Farmer traveled the country with Bayard Rustin, a field secretary with FOR, and recruited activists at FOR meetings. CORE's early growth consisted almost entirely of white middle-class college students from the Midwest. CORE pioneered the strategy of nonviolent direct action, especially the tactics of sit-ins, jail-ins, and freedom rides.

From the beginning of its expansion, CORE experienced tension between local control and national leadership. The earliest affiliated chapters retained control of their own activities and funds. With a nonhierarchical system as the model of leadership, a national leadership over local chapters seemed contradictory to CORE's principles. Some early chapters were dominated by pacifists and focused on educational activities. Other chapters emphasized direct action protests, such as sit-ins. This tension persisted throughout CORE's early existence.

Through sit-ins and picket lines, CORE had success in integrating northern public facilities in the 1940s. With these successes it was decided that, to have a national impact, it was necessary to strengthen the national organization. James Farmer became the first National Director of CORE in 1953.

In April of 1947 CORE sent eight white and eight black men into the upper South to test a Supreme Court ruling that declared segregation in interstate travel unconstitutional. CORE gained national attention for this Journey of Reconciliation when four of the riders were arrested in Chapel Hill, North Carolina and three, including Bayard Rustin, were forced to work on a chain gang.

In the aftermath of the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision, CORE was revived from several years of stagnation and decline. CORE provided the 1955 Bojkot autobusu Montgomery with its philosophical commitment to nonviolent direct action. As the Civil Rights Movement took hold, CORE focused its energy in the South.

CORE's move into the South forced the leadership to address the question of the organization's place within the black community. Though whites still remained prominent, black leaders were sought out for high profile positions. CORE remained committed to interracialism but no longer required that new chapters have an interracial membership, largely expecting little white support in the South. While middle-class college students predominated in the early years of the organization, increasingly the membership was made up of poorer and less educated African Americans.

CORE provided guidance for action in the aftermath of the 1960 sit-in of four college students at a Greensboro, North Carolina lunch counter, and subsequently became a nationally recognized civil rights organization. As pioneers of the sit-in tactic the organization offered support in Greensboro and organized sit-ins throughout the South. CORE members then developed the strategy of the jail-in, serving out their sentences for sit-ins rather than paying bail.

In May of 1961 CORE organized the Freedom Rides , modeled after their earlier Journey of Reconciliation. Near Birmingham, Alabama a bus was firebombed and riders were beaten by a white mob. Despite this violent event, CORE continued to locate field secretaries in key areas of the South to provide support for the riders.

By the end of 1961, CORE had 53 affiliated chapters, and they remained active in southern civil rights activities for the next several years. CORE participated heavily in President Kennedy's Voter Education Project (VEP) and also co-sponsored the 1963 Marca vo Washingtone . In 1964 CORE participated in the Mississippi Freedom Summer project three activists killed that summer in an infamous case, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman a Michael Schwerner, were members of CORE.

By 1963 CORE had already shifted attention to segregation in the North and West where two thirds of the organization's chapters were located. In an effort to build CORE's credibility as a black-protest organization, leadership in these northern chapters had become almost entirely black. CORE's ideology and strategies increasingly were challenged by its changing membership. Many new members advocated militancy and believed nonviolent methods of protest were to be used only if they proved successful.

As the tactics were being questioned so was the leadership. In 1966, under mounting pressure and with the organization losing members influence and financial support, James Farmer stepped down as National Director and was replaced by the more militant Floyd McKissick. McKissick endorsed the term Black Power and was a much more acceptable leader to the Black community than Farmer was.

When McKissick took over, the organization was badly dis-organized and deep in debt. Although McKissick was a charismatic and respected leader, he was unable to turn the organization's finances around. In 1968 he announced his retirement to pursue his dream of building a "Soul City" in North Carolina and Roy Innis, who was Chairman of the Harlem Chapter of CORE, replaced him as the National Director.

Innis inherited the organization with a completely de-centralized structure, with more than a million dollars in debt and no fundraising mechanism. The organization's fundraising arm--CORE Health, Education & Welfare Fund--had deserted the organization when Farmer left. Innis quickly declared the first order of business was restructuring so that Chapters and field operatives were responsible back to the National Headquarters. Innis also developed a new fundraising arm--CORE Special Purpose Fund--and began to chip away at the organization's debt.

Under Innis's leadership, CORE embraced an ideology of pragmatic nationalism and lent its support to black economic development and community self-determination.


The fascinating tale of Marcel Duchamp's Fountain

Photographed by Alfred Stieglitz, urinated on by Brian Eno, sometimes cited as the work of a German baroness, Marcel Duchamp's Fountain was arguably the first ever piece of conceptual art and harbours a fascinating backstory

Photographed, then subsequently thrown away, by Alfred Stieglitz, urinated on by Brian Eno and sometimes cited as the work of a Bauhaus baroness rather than the man it is most commonly associated with, Marcel Duchamp's Fountain is arguably the first piece of conceptual art ever, certainly the most famous ready made in art history, and has inspired countless artists from Grayson Perry to Damien Hirst, Richard Hamilton to Richard Wentworth and inspired many others to 'interact' with it in the most obvious way in gallery and museum settings. . .

In the gently flowing curves of Fountain Duchamp biographer Calvin Tomkins claimed one could discern ‘the veiled head of a classic Renaissance Madonna or a seated Buddha or, perhaps more to the point, one of Brâncuși's polished erotic forms. Others have likened the work to an erect penis and testicles or even “a modest woman with her head covered”.

One thing is clear: for such an important landmark in art history Fountain was incredibly short lived. After photographing the piece in his studio, Alfred Stieglitz disposed of the urinal, meaning that what you will gaze upon in any gallery or museum now will be one of 17 replicas commissioned by Marcel Duchamp in the 1960s.

With Fountain Duchamp pretty much invented conceptual art and thus cut the accepted link between an artist’s labour and the supposed ‘merit’ of the work. It has been mooted that in putting the urinal forward as a work of art Duchamp, who came from a small town near Rouen, close to the battlefields of World War One, was discrediting the power and standing of the virtuoso artist and the critics who sat in admiration and judgment in the same way that the awful atrocities of the war had discredited the powers of authority.

With Fountain Duchamp, who had arrived in New York from Paris in 1915, revolutionised the ‘creation’ of art and effectively posed the questions: Who is an artist? And what is art?

Duchamp had begun deliberating on the idea of a ‘readymade’ a year or two earlier. The first, in 1913, was a bicycle wheel on a stool which he said he simply ‘liked looking at’. Despite its equally lowly beginnings, Fountain was an altogether sexier offering – sexual attraction and sexual difference being two of Duchamp’s obsessions.

Of all Duchamp's readymades, Fountain is the best known perhaps because its symbolic meaning takes the conceptual challenge posed by the readymade to its most visceral extreme. Duchamp, who saw America as the land of the huckster and Fountain as much practical joke as it was a serious attempt to reconfigure the art world, signed the porcelain urinal ‘R.Mutt (a possible reference to the gambler Mutt in Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff cartoon) and it was submitted for the exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists in 1917, the first annual exhibition by the Society - of which Duchamp was a board member - to be staged at The Grand Central Palace in New York.

However, Duchamp was not known as its creator (though most suspected him to be). Instead, as Alfred Stieglitz wrote “A young woman sent a large porcelain urinal on a pedestal to the Independent(s).”

Duchamp never identified his ‘collaborator’ – if indeed there was one - but the young woman of Stieglitz's description has variously been identified as either Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, an eccentric German poet and artist who loved (but who was jealous of) Duchamp or Louise Norton, who contributed an essay to (the art and Dada journal) The Blind Man discussing Fountain.

Certainly, Freytag-Loringhoven had created broadly similar, scatological works but nothing that held the thinking expressed in Duchamp’s piece. Norton meanwhile, was living at the time in an apartment owned by her parents at 110 West 88th Street in New York City, and this address is partially discernible (along with "Richard Mutt") on the paper entry ticket attached to the object in Stieglitz's photograph.

Duchamp later said that he had not made his own identity known because of his position on the society’s board. As ‘R Mutt’ was an unknown Duchamp thught he could test the board’s openness to art that didn’t conform to conventional standards without compromising his relationship with the other board members.

But Fountain was rejected by the committee, even though the rules stated that all works would be accepted from artists who paid the fee. After some consternation and a brief discussion it was decided that the six dollar submission should be returned to 'Mr. Mutt' with a letter stating that it had no place in an art exhibition. Duchamp immediately resigned from the society stating that “The only works of art America has given (the world) are her “plumbing and her bridges”.

Philosopher Stephen Hicks believed that Duchamp, who was quite familiar with the history of European art, was making a profoundly provocative statement with Fountain:

“The artist is a not great creator—Duchamp went shopping at a plumbing store. The artwork is not a special object - it was mass-produced in a factory. The experience of art is not exciting and ennobling - at best it is puzzling and mostly leaves one with a sense of distaste. But over and above that, Duchamp did not select just any ready-made object to display. In selecting the urinal, his message was clear: Art is something you piss on."

Learn more about Marcel Duchamp, conceptual art, readymades in The Art Book, Art in Time, Art & Today and our two books on Dada.


History of San Francisco, California

The San Francisco area was settled in 1776 by the Spanish officer Juan Bautista de Anza. The original reason for settling there was the construction of a Presidio (fort) designed to guard the entrance to the San Francisco Bay. The fort was a large structure designed to intimidate incoming belligerants. Housing was needed for soldiers stationed at the fort. Father Junipero Serra was assigned to provide a portion of its housing. He was successful in finding a suitable area for a new complex and named it Misión San Francisco de Asís. The area is now called Mission Dolores. Nearly 75 years after the fort was built, the United States seized control of the area in 1846. It was not long after the U.S. takeover that prospectors came to the area. In 1848, gold was discovered in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains about 100 miles to the east. The ensuing gold rush became a major part of the San Francisco economy over the next few years. People arrived from throughout the country to try their luck at making it rich. Two people of note in San Francisco history are Levi Strauss, inventor of denim blue jeans and the sculptor Beniamino Benvenuto Bufano. San Francisco also is blessed with historic places that define its uniqueness. Zahŕňajú, ale nie sú obmedzené na:

San Francisco boasts numerous historic artistic venues and contributors:

Other venues of historic significance are the San Francisco City Hall, George R. Moscone Convention Center, San Francisco Chinatown, Granite Lady, Fisherman's Wharf, Ghirardelli Square, and the Transamerica Pyramid. Higher education has played a significant role in San Francisco history. Institutions of high learning include, but are not limited to, the New College of California, Academy of Art College, Golden Gate University, University of California - San Francisco, University of San Francisco, San Francisco State University, and University of California Hastings College of Law. Two tests of San Francisco’s civic resolve can be seen in the wakes of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and Loma Prieta, the 1989 earthquake. Though some said it could not be done, San Francisco's ingenuity triumphed when the imposing San Francisco Golden Gate Bridge was built.


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