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Albert Hakim

Albert Hakim


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Albert Hakim sa narodil v Iráne v roku 1937. V roku 1974 založil spoločnosť Stanford Technology Corporation v Ženeve vo Švajčiarsku. Podľa Daniela Sheehana: „Hakim vyplatil najvyšším predstaviteľom iránskej armády, aby pomohli americkým spoločnostiam ako Hewlett Packard, Motoroloa a General Electric získať miliónové zmluvy so šáhovým režimom.“

V roku 1976 najal bývalého agenta CIA Edwina Wilsona, aby získal prístup a vplyv vo Washingtone. Stansfield Turner, riaditeľ CIA. Okamžite vykonal vyšetrovanie tajných aktivít CIA. Turner sa nakoniec dozvedel o Teda Shackleym a jeho „tajnom tíme“. Zvlášť sa obával aktivít Wilsona a Nugan Hand Bank.

Jeden z mužov, ktorých Wilson zamestnal, bol bývalý dôstojník CIA Kevin P. Mulcahy. Začal byť znepokojený nezákonnými aktivitami Wilsona a poslal o nich agentúre správu. Ted Shackley bol spočiatku schopný zablokovať akékoľvek interné vyšetrovanie Wilsona. Avšak v apríli 1977 Washington Post, publikoval článok o Wilsonových aktivitách, v ktorom sa uvádza, že sa mu možno dostáva podpory od „súčasných zamestnancov CIA“. Stansfield Turner nariadil vyšetrovanie a zistil, že Shackley aj Thomas G. Clines mali s Wilsonom blízke vzťahy. Zavolali Shackleyho, aby vysvetlil, čo sa deje. Jeho vysvetlenie nebolo uspokojivé a bolo z neho zrejmé, že jeho kariéra v CIA sa skončila. Richard Helms údajne povedal: „Ted (Shackley) je to, čo v strašidelnom obchode nazývame štvornásobnou hrozbou - drogy, zbrane, peniaze a vražda.“

Po odchode zo CIA v septembri 1979 založil Ted Shackley vlastnú spoločnosť Research Associates International, ktorá sa špecializovala na poskytovanie informácií podnikom. Spojil sa tiež s Thomasom G. Clinesom, Raphaelom Quinterom a Ricardom Chavezom (ďalším bývalým agentom CIA) v ďalšej spoločnosti s názvom API Distributors. Podľa Davida Corna (Blond duch) Edwin Wilson poskytol Clinesovi „pol milióna dolárov na rozbeh jeho podnikateľského impéria“. Shackley tiež pracoval na voľnej nohe s API, ale bolo pre neho ťažké prijímať objednávky od svojho bývalého podriadeného Clinesa. Shackley tiež založil vlastnú spoločnosť Research Associates International, ktorá sa špecializovala na poskytovanie spravodajských informácií podnikom (inými slovami, predával im utajované skutočnosti zo súborov CIA).

Edwin Wilson predstavil Hakima Tedovi Shackleymu a Richardovi Secordovi. V októbri 1980 sa Shackley pripojil k spoločnosti, ktorú vlastní Hakim (dostával 5 000 dolárov mesačne ako „analytik rizika“ na čiastočný úväzok). Hakim chcel využiť Shackleyho kontakty na zarobenie peňazí z iránsko-irackej vojny, ktorá sa začala minulý mesiac.

V roku 1983 sa Hakim a Richard Secord stali partnermi spoločnosti Stanford Technology Trading Group International vo Viedni vo Virgínii. Nasledujúci rok zaslala CIA tajnú správu FBI, v ktorej sa uvádza: „Táto agentúra má dôvod domnievať sa, že Hakimova spoločnosť môže byť spojená s tým, že iránskym aktivitám na podporu terorizmu sa budú míňať oficiálne zariadenia v Iráne vo Viedni a Barcelone.“

V roku 1985 sa Paul Hoven stretol s Carlom E. Jenkinsom, bývalým dôstojníkom CIA, na večierku pre ľudí spojených s Vojaci šťastia časopis. Jenkins predstavil Hovena Gene Wheatonovi. Hoven zistil, že Jenkins a Wheaton sa pokúšali získať federálne zmluvy týkajúce sa prepravy tovaru do Afganistanu a Nikaraguy. Wheaton povedal Hovenovi o tom, ako bola administratíva Ronalda Reagana zapojená do nezákonných obchodov so zbraňami. Poskytol tiež informácie o tom, ako bola CIA zodpovedná za vykonanie série politických atentátov.

Hoven zoznámil Wheatona a Jenkinsa s Danielom Sheehanom vo februári 1986. Títo dvaja muži povedali Sheehanovi o skupine bývalých agentov CIA a majetku, ktorí boli zapojení do nezákonných obchodov so zbraňami s Contrasom v Nikarague a s mudžahedínmi v Afganistane. Medzi menovanými boli Albert Hakim, Tom Clines, Raphael Quintero, Ted Shackley, Richard Secord, Felix Rodriguez a Edwin Wilson. Wheaton a Jenkins tiež poskytli viac informácií o politických vraždách, ktoré zorganizovali členovia CIA.

V októbri 1985 dvaja novinári, Tony Avirgan a Martha Honey, obvinili Johna F. Hulla z účasti na bombovom útoku na La Penca. Hull reaguje podaním žaloby na Avirgana a Honeyho za „zranenie, klamstvo a hanobenie charakteru“. Počas procesu Avirgan a Honey poskytujú dokumenty a svedkov na podporu svojich pripomienok k Hullovi. V dôsledku toho sudca zamietol Hullovu žalobu.

V dokumente CBS odvysielanom v apríli 1986 bývalý kontrapilot označil Hullov ranč za „veľký prekládkový závod vojenských dodávok a drog“. Nasledujúci mesiac Daniel Sheehan a Christic Institute pomenovali Albert Hakim, John F. Hull, Ted Shackley, Thomas G. Clines, Richard V. Secord, John K. Singlaub, Robert W. Owen, Rafael Quintero, Adolfo Calero, Pablo Escobar, Jorge Ochoa a 18 ďalších ako významné osobnosti siete vydieračov zapojených do obchodovania s drogami a pašovania zbraní.

12. decembra 1986 Daniel Sheehan predložil súdu čestné vyhlásenie s podrobnosťami o škandále Irangate. Tiež tvrdil, že Thomas Clines a Ted Shackley vedú súkromný vražedný program, ktorý sa vyvinul z projektov, ktoré realizovali počas práce pre CIA. Dodali, že sa to začalo programom atentátneho programu na kubánskych exulantov a pôvodným cieľom bol Fidel Castro.

Nakoniec sa zistilo, že prezident Ronald Reagan predal zbrane Iránu. Peniaze získané z týchto predajov boli použité na zabezpečenie podpory Contras, skupiny partizánov zapojených do povstania proti zvolenej socialistickej sandinistickej vláde Nikaraguy. Predaj týchto zbraní, ako aj financovanie Contrasu, boli v rozpore s administratívnou politikou a legislatívou schválenou Kongresom.

V marci 1988 Gene Wheaton súhlasil s poskytnutím výpovede vo federálnej súdnej sieni vo Washingtone. Wheaton tvrdil, že Ted Shackley dohliadal na úkladnú vraždu s názvom Rybia farma. Odmietol však povedať, ktorý úradník CIA vo výslužbe mu tieto informácie poskytol.

Predpokladalo sa, že Wheatonovým zdrojom bol Carl E. Jenkins. Odmietol to však slovami: „Som ohromený tým, že na základe svojich rozhovorov so mnou pán Sheehan pod prísahou prisahal, že som mu poskytol všetky tieto informácie.“

23. júna 1988 sudca James L. King rozhodol, že Sheehanove obvinenia „sú založené na nepodložených fámach a špekuláciách z neidentifikovaných zdrojov bez znalosti prvej ruky“. Vo februári 1989 sudca King rozhodol, že Sheenan podal frivolný súdny spor a nariadil svojmu Christickému ústavu zaplatiť obžalovaným 955 000 dolárov. Išlo o jeden z najvyšších sankčných príkazov v histórii a predstavoval štyrikrát viac majetku Kristického inštitútu.

Špeciálny prokurátor škandálu Irán-Contra Lawrence Walsh udelil prokurátorskú imunitu 14 obžalovaným a obvinil šesť osôb. Keď potom George Bush v roku 1992 prehral voľby, jednou z posledných vecí, ktoré urobil pred odchodom z funkcie, bolo omilostenie všetkých ľudí, ktorých špeciálny prokurátor obvinil.

Albert Hakim zomrel 25. apríla 2003 v Inchone v Južnej Kórei.

1. Som riadne licencovaný advokát, prijatý do praxe pred štátnym a federálnym súdom štátu New York v severnom aj južnom okrese New Yorku.

2. Mám riadnu licenciu a bol som prijatý na prax pred súdy okresu Columbia, miestne aj federálne, a mám dobrú pozíciu pred advokátskou komorou New York aj pred advokátskou komorou okresu Columbia.

3. Od roku 1970 som vykonával advokáciu na súdoch v New Yorku a mnohých ďalších štátoch nášho národa, pričom som slúžil ako obhajca v asi 60 rôznych častiach súdnych sporov v štátoch New York, Pensylvánia, Severná Karolína, Virgínia, okres Columbia, Georgia, Florida, Oklahoma, Ohio, Colorado, Idaho, Nebraska, Južná Dakota, Wyoming a Mississippi.

4. V roku 1967 som vyštudoval Harvard College ako Honors Graduate in American Government, napísal som svoju diplomovú prácu v oblasti ústavného práva a v roku 1967 som bol nominovaný na Harvardskú univerzitu na štipendium Rhodos z New Yorku. Vyštudoval som Harvard School of Právo v roku 1970, keď pôsobil ako redaktor Harvardských občianskych práv) Revue práva občianskych slobôd a ako vedecký pracovník profesora Jerome Cohena, predsedu odboru medzinárodného práva na Harvarde.

5. Počas štúdia na Harvardskej právnickej škole som pôsobil ako letný spolupracovník v právnickej firme Goodwin, Proctor a Hoar na State Street pod dohľadom Senior Partnera Donalda J. Hurleyho, prezidenta Bostonskej obchodnej komory a senátora v Massachusetts. Predseda kampane pre Johna F. Kennedyho. V tejto firme som sa zúčastnil prípadu BAIRD / EISENSTAT pod vedením Rogera Stockeyho, generálneho radcu Massachusettskej ligy plánovaného rodičovstva (ustanovujúceho protiústavnosť zákona o antikoncepcii v Massachusetts) a v prípade Nevady, podľa Charlesa Goodhue, III ( ustanovenie ústavného práva na kauciu v prípadoch vydania trestného činu vrátane hrdelných vecí). Počas štúdia na Harvardskej právnickej fakulte som napísal knihu „The Pedestrian Sources of Civil Liberties“ v časopise Harvard Civil Rights Civil Liberties Law Review a slúžil som pod vedením profesora Miltona Katza, prezidenta Medzinárodnej asociácie práva, ako predsedu nigérijskej organizácie Biafran Relief. Komisia zodpovedná za úspešné rokovanie o prijatí milosrdných letov potravín do Biafry v roku 1968.

6. Keď Gordon, Sonnett, Rheindle a Ohio pôsobili ako právny spolupracovník v právnickej firme Wall Street v Cahill, pod vedením Theodora Shackleyho a Thomasa Clinesa, v rokoch 1974 a 1975 riadili projekt Phoenix vo Vietname, ktorý vykonával tajnú misiu zavraždenie členov ekonomickej a politickej byrokracie vo Vietname s cieľom ochromiť schopnosť tohto národa fungovať po úplnom stiahnutí USA z Vietnamu. Tento projekt Phoenix počas svojej histórie vykonal vo Vietname politickú vraždu asi 60 000 dedinských starostov, pokladníkov, učiteľov a ďalších ne) správcov Vietkongu. Theodore Shackley a Thomas Clines financovali v rokoch 1974 a 1975 veľmi zintenzívnenú fázu projektu Phoenix tým, že spôsobili, že sa na tento účel do Vietnamu tajne priviedol intenzívny tok peňazí ópia Vang Pao. Tieto ópiové peniaze Vang Pao spravoval pre Theodora Shackleyho a Thomasa Clinesa predstaviteľ amerického námorníctva so sídlom v americkej kancelárii námorných operácií v Saigone menom Richard Armitage. Pretože však Theodore Shackley, Thomas Clines a Richard Armitage vedeli, že ich tajný protikomunistický vyhladzovací program sa vo veľmi blízkej budúcnosti vo Vietname, Laose, Kambodži a Thajsku zastaví, začali v roku 1973 veľmi tajne. program, ktorý nie je autorizovaný CIA. Od konca roku 1973 do apríla 1975 vyplácali Theodore Shackley, Thomas Clines a Richard Armitage z tajného laoského opiového fondu Vang Pao oveľa viac peňazí, než koľko bolo potrebné na financovanie dokonca silne zintenzívneného projektu Phoenix vo Vietname. Peniaze prevyšujúce peniaze používané vo Vietname boli tajne pašované z Vietnamu vo veľkých kufroch Richardom Secordom a Thomasom Clinesom a prevezené do Austrálie, kde boli uložené na tajnom osobnom bankovom účte (súkromne prístupný Theodorovi Shackleymu, Thomasovi Clinesovi) a Richard Secord). V tom istom období medzi rokmi 1973 a 1975 Theodore Shackley a Thomas Clines spôsobili, že tisíce ton amerických zbraní, munície a výbušnín boli tajne odobraté z Vietnamu a uložené v tajnej „keške“ ukrytej v Thajsku.

„Styčným dôstojníkom“ spoločnosti Shackley a Clines a projektu Phoenix vo Vietname počas tohto obdobia v rokoch 1973 až 1975 z „výboru 40“ v Bielom dome v Nixone bol jeden Eric Von Arbod, námestník štátneho tajomníka pre záležitosti Ďalekého východu. Von Arbod zdieľal svoje informácie o projekte Phoenix priamo so svojim nadriadeným Henrym Kissingerom.

Saigon padol Vietnamcom v apríli 1975. Vietnamská vojna sa skončila. Ihneď po ukončení evakuácie amerického personálu z Vietnamu poslali Richard Armitage, Theodore Shackley a Thomas Clines, z Vietnamu do Teheránu v Iráne. V Iráne Armitage, „bursar“ za ópiové peniaze Vang Pao pre plánovaný tajný operačný program „Tajného tímu“ Shackleyho a Clinesa, v období od mája do augusta 1975 vytvoril v Iráne tajný „finančný kanál“, do ktorého Prostriedky na lieky Vang Pao by mohli byť uložené z juhovýchodnej Ázie. Cieľom tohto kanála bolo slúžiť ako nástroj tajného financovania Shackleyho „Tajného tímu“ súkromných „čiernych“ operácií mimo Iránu v Iráne, ktoré nemajú oprávnenie hľadať, identifikovať a vraždiť socialistických a komunistických sympatizantov, ktorí boli Shackleyom a jeho členmi „tajného tímu“ považovaní za „potenciálnych teroristov“ proti iránskej vláde šacha. Koncom roku 1975 a začiatkom roku 1976 si Theodore Shackley a Thomas Clines ponechali Edwina Wilsona, aby odcestoval do iránskeho Teheránu, aby tam viedol iránsky program atentátov na „tajný tím“ zameraný na „boj proti terorizmu“. Nešlo o operáciu schválenú vládou USA. Išlo o súkromné ​​operácie, na ktoré dohliadali, riadili a na ktorých sa podieľali Shackley, Clines, Secord a Armitage vo svojich čisto súkromných funkciách.

Koncom roku 1975 nastúpil Richard Armitage na miesto „špeciálneho konzultanta“ amerického ministerstva obrany pre americký vojenský personál Missing In Action (MIA) v juhovýchodnej Ázii. V tejto funkcii bol Armitage vyslaný na veľvyslanectvo USA v thajskom Bangkoku. Tam mal Armitage najvyššiu zodpovednosť za lokalizáciu a vyhľadávanie amerických MIA v juhovýchodnej Ázii. Pracoval na veľvyslanectve so spolupracovníkom, jedným Jerrym O. Danielsom. V rokoch 1975 až 1977 zastával tento post v Thajsku Armitage. Povinnosti tohto úradu však neplnil. Namiesto toho Armitage naďalej fungoval ako „bursar“ pre „tajný tím Theodora Shackleyho“, pričom dohliadal na to, aby sa tajné ópiové fondy Vang Pao uskutočňovali od Laosu, cez Armitage v Thajsku až po Teherán a tajný bankový účet Shackley v Austrálii na Banka Nugen-Hand. Prostriedky, ktoré Armitage vykonal v Teheráne, boli určené na financovanie tajnej protiteroristickej operácie Edwina Wilsona „hľadať a zničiť“ v mene Theodora Shackelyho. Armitage tiež venoval časť svojho času v rokoch 1975 až 1977 v Bangkoku uľahčeniu úteku z Laosu, Kambodže a Thajska a premiestnenia inde vo svete počtu tajných skupín kmeňov Meo, ktoré uskutočnili program skrytých politických atentátov. pre Theodora Shackleyho v juhovýchodnej Ázii v rokoch 1966 až 1975. Pri tejto operácii pomáhal Richardovi Armitageovi Jerry O. Skutočne, Jerry O. Daniels bol pre Richarda Armitage „bag-man“, pomáhal Armitageovi fyzickým transportom miliónov dolárov z Thajska Tajné ópiové peniaze Vang Pao na financovanie premiestnenia kmeňov Meod Theodora Shackleyho a na dodávku finančných prostriedkov na operácie „Tajného tímu“ Theodora Shackleyho. Na americkom veľvyslanectve v Bangkoku dohliadal Richard Armitage aj na odstraňovanie zbraní, munície a výbušnín z tajnej medzipamäte munície Shackley/Clines ukrytej v Thajsku v rokoch 1973 až 1975, ktorú použil Shackleyho „tajný tím“. Pri tejto poslednej operácii pomáhal Armitageovi Daniel Arnold, vedúci stanice CIA v Thajsku, ktorý sa pripojil k Shackleyho „tajnému tímu“ vo svojej čisto súkromnej funkcii.

Jeden z dôstojníkov amerického veľvyslanectva v Thajsku, jeden Abranowitz, sa dozvedel o zapojení Armitage do tajného narábania s ópiovými fondmi Vang Pao a spôsobil, že bolo zahájené interné vyšetrovanie pašovania heroínu namierené proti Richardovi Armitageovi. Armitage bol terčom sťažností personálu veľvyslanectva v tom zmysle, že si absolútne neplnil svoje povinnosti v mene amerických MIA a neochotne odstúpil ako D.O.D. Špeciálny konzultant pre MIA na konci roku 1977.

Od roku 1977 do roku 1979 zostal Armitage v Bangkoku, kde otvoril a prevádzkoval spoločnosť s názvom The Far East Trading Company. Táto spoločnosť mala pobočky iba v Bangkoku a vo Washingtone, DC. Táto spoločnosť bola v skutočnosti v rokoch 1977 až 1979 iba „frontom“ tajných operácií spoločnosti Armitage, ktoré uskutočňovali ópiové peniaze Vang Pao z juhovýchodnej Ázie do Teheránu a banky Nugen-Hand. v Austrálii na financovanie ultrapravicového, súkromného protikomunistického „protiteroristického“ programu atentátov a „nekonvenčného boja“ operácie „Tajného tímu“ Theodora Shackleyho a Thomasa Clina. Počas tohto obdobia, v rokoch 1975 až 1979, v Bangkoku žil Richard Armitage v dome Hynnie Aderholdta, bývalého veliteľa leteckého krídla Shackleyho „skupiny špeciálnych operácií“ v Laose, ktorý v rokoch 1966 až 1968 slúžil ako bezprostredný nadriadený Richardovi Secordovi, zástupcovi veliteľa leteckého krídla MAG SOG. Spoločnosť Secord bola v roku 1975 prevezená z Vietnamu do iránskeho Teheránu.

V roku 1976 sa Richard Secord presťahoval do Teheránu v Iráne a stal sa zástupcom námestníka ministra obrany v Iráne, ktorý mal na starosti divíziu Blízkeho východu Správy pomoci pri obrannej bezpečnosti. V tejto funkcii Secord pôsobil ako hlavný operačný dôstojník amerického ministerstva obrany na Blízkom východe, ktorý mal na starosti zahraničný vojenský predaj amerických lietadiel, zbraní a vojenského vybavenia národom Blízkeho východu spojencom s americkým priamym nadriadeným Ericom Van Marbadom, bývalý styčný dôstojník 40 výborov programu Phoenix Theodora Shackleyho vo Vietname v rokoch 1973 až 1975.

V rokoch 1976 až 1979 v Iráne Richard Secord dohliadal na predaj amerických vojenských lietadiel a zbraní národom Blízkeho východu. Richard Secord však neautorizoval priamy predaj takéhoto zariadenia medzi národmi priamo od vlády USA uvedeným vládam Blízkeho východu. Namiesto toho Richard Secord uskutočňoval takýto predaj prostredníctvom „stredného muža“, ktorým bol Albert Hakim. Použitím stredného muža Alberta Hakima námestník námestníka ministra obrany Richard Secord kúpil od vlády USA americké vojenské lietadlá a zbrane za nízke „náklady výrobcu“, ale tieto americké lietadlá a zbrane predal klientom z krajín Blízkeho východu za oveľa väčšiu cenu. vyššie „náklady na výmenu“. Spoločnosť Secord potom spôsobila, že vláde USA bude zaplatená zo skutočnej získanej predajnej ceny iba nižšia čiastka, ktorá sa rovná nižším nákladom výrobcu. Rozdiel bol utajený od vlády USA a Secord a Albert Hakim tajne previedli tieto milióny dolárov na Shackleyho operácie „Tajného tímu“ v Iráne a na Shackleyho tajný bankový účet Nugen-Hand v Austrálii. V roku 1976 sa teda obžalovaný Albert Hakim stal partnerom „Tajného tímu“ Theodora Shackleyho ako partner s Thomasom Clinesom, Richardom Secordom a Richardom Armitage.

V rokoch 1976 až 1979 založili Shackley, Clines, Secord, Hakim, Wilson a Armitage niekoľko korporácií a dcérskych spoločností po celom svete, prostredníctvom ktorých skryli operácie „tajného tímu“. Mnoho z týchto spoločností bolo založených vo Švajčiarsku. Niektoré z nich boli: (1) Lake Resources, Inc .; (2) Stanford Technology Trading Group, Inc .; a (3) Companie de Services Fiduciaria. V Strednej Amerike boli založené ďalšie spoločnosti, ako napríklad: (4) CSF Investments, Ltd. a (5) Udall research Corporation. Niektoré zriadil v USA Edwin Wilson. Niektoré z nich boli: (6) Orca Supply Company na Floride a (7) Consultants International vo Washingtone, DC Prostredníctvom týchto korporácií členovia „tajného tímu“ Theodora Shackleyho vyprali stovky miliónov dolárov tajných ópiových peňazí Vang Pao, ktoré boli vykradnuté zahraničím. Vojenský predaj prebieha v rokoch 1976 až 1979. Menovaný v tomto federálnom civilnom obleku bude pod prísahou a požiadaný o účasť v zločineckom „podniku“, ktorý je v tejto sťažnosti uvedený, je dôkazom kriminálnej viny obžalovaných za niektoré zo zločinov obvinených v r. táto sťažnosť.

Žalobcovia a právni zástupcovia žalobcov, The Christic Institute, majú dôkazy predstavujúce „pravdepodobnú príčinu“, že každý z obžalovaných uvedených v tejto sťažnosti je vinný zo spáchaného konania.

Ak Súd požaduje ďalšie podrobné dôkazy, ktoré by žalobcom umožnili začať štandardný proces zisťovania v tomto prípade, neuvedenie tohto vyhlásenia v tomto čestnom vyhlásení je funkciou krátkeho času, ktorý Súd poskytne na prípravu tohto podania, nie je to preto, že navrhovateľom takéto dôkazy chýbajú.

Sheehan a Wheaton si sadli do kuchyne Hovenovho domu začiatkom februára 1986. Bola to mágia. Širokookému Sheehanovi Wheaton, vystupujúci ako skúsený operátor, vyhodil divoké príbehy o tajných operáciách a desiatky mien: Wilson, Secord, Clines, Hakim, Singlaub, Bush. Celá posádka pobehovala, podporovala Contrasovcov a vykonávala skrytú aktivitu inde. Zapojené boli drogy. Niektorí z tohto gangu sa zapojili do korupčného vládneho podnikania v Iráne a juhovýchodnej Ázii. Teraz tí istí starí chlapci viedli zbrane do Latinskej Ameriky. Ústredným bodom celého shebangu bol bývalý dôstojník CIA Ted Shackley. Sheehan bola uchvátená. Zasiahol materskú loď.

Sheehan párkrát hovoril s Carlom Jenkinsom. Na jednom zasadnutí Sheehan počúval, ako Jenkins a Wheaton diskutovali o tom, čo Wheaton nazýva „gangom mimo rezerváciu“- Secord, Clines, Hakim a Shackley- a operáciách, ktoré spustili vo vláde a mimo neho. Podľa Hovena chceli Wheaton a Jenkins vidieť informácie o tomto dave zverejnené a považovali Sheehan za mechanizmus odhalenia.

Wheaton a Jenkins nepovedali Sheehanovi, že dúfajú, že vyrovnajú skóre s kapelou, o ktorej si mysleli, že má nespravodlivý zámok o zmluvách o dodávke vzduchu, ktoré požadovali. Ale Hovenovi bolo jasné, že jedna frakcia strašidiel bije druhú. Hoven si nebol istý, kto je na ktorej strane. Hádal, že niekto niekde - možno dokonca aj v samotnej Agentúre - je naštvaný na voľnej nohe a chcel ich vidieť uväznených. Ak si však Jenkins alebo ktokoľvek iný myslel, že môžu používať Sheehan ako tichý vysielač škodlivých informácií, mýlili sa ako mohli by byť.

Počas zimy a jari, keď sa Sheehan rozprával s Wheatonom a Jenkinsom, mal na mysli niečo iné: dvojročné bombardovanie Nikaraguy. 30. mája 1984 vybuchla na tlačovej konferencii v Nikaragui v meste La Penca, ktorú držal Eden Pastora, bdelý vodca Contra, ktorý odolal spolupráci so CIA a hlavnou zmluvnou silou. Niekoľko ľudí bolo zabitých, ale nie Pastora. Potom sa Tony Avirgan, americký novinár, ktorý v La Penca utrpel šrapnelové poranenia, a jeho manželka Martha Honeyová rozhodli odhaliť, kto útok pripravil. O rok neskôr vydali knihu, ktorá obvinila malú skupinu Američanov a kubánskych exulantov-niektorých so väzbami na CIA a Contras-z plánovania vražedného útoku. Jednou z osôb, ktorých sa dotkli, bol John Hull, podporovateľ Contra, ktorý sa rozšíril na severe Kostariky a má vzťah so Severom a CIA. Ich správa poznamenala, že niektorí priaznivci Contra sa v obchode s drogami presvecujú.

Hull pár zažaloval za urážku na cti v Kostarike. Požadoval 1 milión dolárov. Avirgan a Honey, ktorí žili v San Jose, sa vyhrážali smrťou. Uvažovali o odplate podaním žaloby v USA na jednotlivcov v tajnej sieti na podporu protikladu. Nenašli však žiadneho právnika, ktorý by riešil taký ťažký prípad. Nakoniec im bol odporučený Sheehan. Skontrolovali ho. Správy boli zmiešané. Mal však jeden nepopierateľný pozitívny atribút: prípad by prijal. Manželia ho zadržali.

Koncom jari 1986 sa Sheehan miešal so strašidelami v oblasti Washingtonu a premýšľal o tom, ako začať súdny spor s Avirganom a Honeyom. Zhromažďoval informácie o operácii Contra. Priblížil sa k Wheatonovi, ktorý mal pri každom stretnutí novú rozprávku. Potom sa Sheehan vydal na púť za temným anjelom skrytého davu: Edom Wilsonom.

Väznený darebák prinútil Sheehanovu hlavu plávať. Podstatou Wilsonovho príbehu, tvrdil Sheehan, bolo, že agentúra v roku 1976 vytvorila silne tajnostkársku protiteroristickú jednotku podľa vzoru PRU vo Vietname a prevádzkovala túto entitu mimo hlavnej byrokracie. Misia: Vykonávajte „mokré operácie“ (špionážne rozhovory o vraždách). Po zvolení Jimmyho Cartera bola táto skupina vymazaná z kníh a ukrytá v súkromných spoločnostiach a Shackley bol mužom zodpovedným za jednotku vo vláde aj mimo nej. Program bol rozdelený na rôzne časti. Muž CIA William Buckley údajne jedného nasmeroval z Mexika s Quinterom a Ricardom Chavezom. Na čele ďalšej jednotky bol bývalý dôstojník Mossadu. Felix Rodriguez sa zúčastnil ešte jedného na Strednom východe. Sheehan vzal Wilsona za slovo. „Wilson išiel do takých podrobností,“ tvrdil neskôr Sheehan. „Nie je to niečo, čo sa vymýšľa.“

V jednom momente, keď sa Sheehan stretol s Wilsonom, mu došlo: všetko bolo prepojené. Bombardovanie La Penca, sieť North-Contra, Wilsonov gang, všetky tie kubánske exulanty vycvičené CIA, celá história špinavých trikov agentúry, operácie proti Castrovi, vojna v Laose, škaredá strašidelná stránka vojny vo Vietname, činnosť tajnej agentúry v Iráne. Bolo to pokračujúce sprisahanie. Nezáležalo na tom, či títo chlapci boli vo vláde alebo mimo nej. Bola to darebná vláda vo vláde, sprisahanie, ktoré existovalo celé desaťročia, trvalý zločinecký podnik. Sheehan mal jednotnú teóriu skrytých dejín USA. A Shackley bol zlý profesor Moriarty, muž, ktorý ťahal za všetky nitky. Pomstiaci Sheehan bol teraz odhodlaný stiahnuť Shackleyho.

Sheehan spojil prípad bombardovania La Penca so svojim Wheatonom ovplyvneným vyšetrovaním siete starých chlapcov. Avirgan a Honey sa s ním podelili o všetky informácie, ktoré starostlivo vyvinuli o operácii podpory Contra. Mená a príbehy, ktoré na nich hádzal - vrátane Shackleyho - boli neznáme. Brali to s vierou, že Sheehan vie, čo robí, keď zmiešal výsledky ich profesionálneho vyšetrovania s vreckom informácií, ktoré zozbieral od Wheatona, Wilsona a ďalších. „V strede sme videli Johna Hulla a Sheehan ako Shackleyho,“ spomína Honey. "Shackley bol hlavnou zložkou. Neviem, prečo sa na neho Danny zameral. Povedal nám, že má veľa informácií o Shackleyho angažovaní sa v La Penca. To bolo BS, ale čo my vieme, keď sedíme v Kostarike?" Sheehan hľadal prípad, ktorý by mohol hrať pred veľkým publikom. Avirganovi a Medovi opakovane povedal, že verejnosť sa o La Penca nestará. Ľudia by si však všimli, keby nepriateľom bolo jedno veľké sprisahanie, na čele ktorého bola zbabelá postava.

Sheehan na prípad použil prostriedky svojho malého Kristického inštitútu. Wheaton pokračoval vo vyšetrovaní davu Wilsonov a ďalších skrytých druhov. Začal Jenkinsovi hovoriť, že verí, že prenasleduje desaťročia starú, prísne tajnú vražednú jednotku. Wheaton tvrdil, že sa to začalo programom atentátneho programu na kubánskych exulantov, ktorý Shackley zaviedol na začiatku 60. rokov minulého storočia. Cieľom bol Castro. Tajná vojna proti Kube sa rozplynula, ale „tím strelcov“ pokračoval. Rozšíril sa a teraz sa mu hovorilo Rybia farma a Shackley zostal jeho náčelníkom.

Sheehan spojil všetky tieto strašidelné klebety a dezinformácie s niekoľkými tvrdými faktami a 29. mája 1986 zhodil bremeno. Na federálnom súde v Miami podal Sheehan žalobu na tridsať jednotlivcov, odvolával sa na zákon RACO zameraný proti sledovaniu a obvinil všetkých z toho, že sú súčasťou zločineckého sprisahania, ktoré v Nikaragui školi, financuje a ozbrojuje kubánsko-amerických žoldnierov, pašuje drogy, porušuje zákon o neutrálnosti. podporou Contrasov obchodoval s rôznymi zbraňami a bombardoval tlačovú konferenciu v La Penca. Sheehanovými žalobcami boli novinári Tony Avirgan a Martha Honey. Sprisahanci boli vzdialení: John Hull v Kostarike; Kubánski exulanti so sídlom v Miami (vrátane Quintero); narkobaróni Pablo Escobar a Jorge Ochoa v Kolumbii; obchodníci so zbraňami na Floride; Vedúci kontrastu Adolfo Calero; alabamský žoldnier menom Tom Posey; Robert Owen, tajný severný pobočník; neznámy bombardér v La Penca; a Singlaub, Hakim, Secord, Clines a Shackley. Sheehan tvrdil, že Shackley nezákonne obchodoval so zbraňami, plánoval zabiť Pastoru a (so spoločnosťami Secord, Clines a Hakim) prijal peniaze z predaja drog za dodávky zbraní. Sheehan požadoval odškodné viac ako 23 miliónov dolárov.

Sheehan týmto súdom veril, že by mohol prerušiť operáciu na podporu Contra a vrhnúť do svetla tieňové postavy, ktoré už roky robia neplechu. Sheehan a Wheaton narazili na niektorých skutočných hráčov a niektoré skutočné operácie. Ale obaja mali hyperaktívnu predstavivosť a bez ohľadu na pravdu, ktorú odhalili, sa zvrtli do falošného, ​​kozmického sprisahania.

Podanie, ktoré lenivo pripravil Sheehan-prekvapený Shackley a jeho spoluobžalovaní. Hoven a Jenkins boli ohromení. Ani jeden nečakal, že Sheehan spôsobí takú búrku. Sheehan v tom očividne bol pre politiku a ego. Nechcel byť tichým šíriteľom informácií. „Zostal mi predpoklad,“ poznamenal Hoven, „že som bol nastavený tak, aby som Sheehanovi odovzdával informácie. Ale oni“ - ktokoľvek to bol - „to pokazili, pretože Sheehan to nehral blízko scenára.“

John F. Kennedy - liberál John F. Kennedy School - povedal, že „Odkedy George Washington varoval svoju krajinu pred cudzími spletinami, bolo zahraničné impérium vnímané ako trvalé pokušenie Ameriky, ale aj ako jej potenciálna nemesis.“ Aké slovo však okrem impérium “by mohlo opísať úžasnú vec, ktorou sa Amerika v súčasnej dobe stáva? Je to jediný národ, ktorý riadi svet prostredníctvom piatich globálnych vojenských velení, udržiava viac ako milión mužov v zbrani na štyroch kontinentoch a nasadzuje bojové skupiny dopravcov na každom z našich planetárne oceány, zaručuje prežitie krajín od Izraela po Južnú Kóreu, poháňa kolesá globálneho obchodu a obchodu a svojimi túžbami napĺňa srdcia a mysle celej našej planéty.

Varovanie Johna Quincyho Adamsa v roku 1821 sa teraz stáva prísnym a relevantným. Povedal: „Ak by bola Amerika niekedy v pokušení stať sa diktátorom sveta, určite by už nebola vládkyňou svojho vlastného ducha.“ To, čo impérium bohaté v zahraničí nemôže minúť na udržanie republikánskej vlády doma: v nemocniciach alebo na cestách alebo školy. Rozložené vojenské rozpočty len zhoršujú pokračujúce neschopnosť Ameriky dodržať svoj rovnostársky sľub sebe a svetu, a to je len niekoľko nákladov na impérium.

Ďalšími nákladmi sú zadržiavanie amerických občanov bez poplatkov alebo prístup k právnemu poradcovi vo vojenských brigádach; väznenie zahraničných bojovníkov v ostrovných väzniciach, v legálnom limbe; držanie zákonných mimozemšťanov, a dokonca aj amerických občanov, pod trvalým nezákonným dohľadom doma, pričom niektorých cudzincov deportujeme len po tajných vypočutiach. Nejde o činy republiky, ktorá žije podľa právneho štátu alebo podľa svojej ústavy, ale o cisársku moc, ktorá v skutočnosti nedôveruje svojim slobodám.

And he goes on in this vein for several pages, actually, predictably critiquing this extremely conservative foreign policy of the Bush administration and pointing out that on September 11, he said, “was a rude awakening, a moment of reckoning with the avenging hatred which this imperial policy raises around the world. American citizens may not have thought of the Twin Trade Towers and the U.S. Pentagon as symbolic headquarters of a world empire, but numberless millions across the world do. And these men and women cheered the men with box cutters and their propagandistic deed of September 11.

And this goes on in this vein - and this is, I guess, only to be expected from the liberal John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard. But surprisingly enough, rather than continue in the article by condemning this totally conservative foreign policy on the part of the new Bush administration and setting forth a clear, liberal alternative, what in fact Professor Ignatieff does - and it comes from recognizing, which I hadn’t recognized to begin with, that the name of the article is not simply, “The American Empire.” It is, “The American Empire: Get Used to It.”

For he goes on - rather than setting forth a clear alternative policy - to point out, saying, “Why should such a republic ever take on the risk of becoming an empire? Doesn’t this run the chance of endangering its identity as a free people? The problem is,” he says, “that this question implies the existence of innocent options, which in the case of Iraq do not exist. Iraq is not just a question about whether the United States can retain its republican virtue in a wicked world, for virtuous disengagement is no longer a possibility. Since September 11, the question has now become whether our republic can possibly survive in safety without imperial policing abroad.”

He said, “Containment, rather than a war, would be the better course. But the Bush administration has concluded that containment has now reached its limits. And this conclusion is not unreasonable.” He says that, “The possession of weapons of mass destruction by Saddam Hussein - for this would render him the master of the region which contains so much of the world’s oil resources that it makes that region what a military strategist might call ‘the center of gravity of any intended empire.”

And he goes on in this vein to point out that what his real criticism of this conservative imperial policy is that it simply does not adequately share the policing power of the New Imperium with our European allies in our allied field. He also points out that in fact the other criticism of this is it does not adequately link together the massive bombing - “the upcoming bombing,” as he refers to it - of Iraq with, in fact, an adequate policy to bring peace to the entire Middle East. He said that just bombing Iraq and removing Saddam Hussein doesn’t really ensure the establishment of a democratic set of institutions in Iraq, and so therefore he criticizes the policies of the administration by not going far enough in being an imperial power.

In addition to simply bombing Iraq and removing Saddam Hussein, he said, “we must get into building an entire culture in Iraq that is predicated upon democratic principles and free-market principles” - and if we’re going to do this, then of course, he says, we have to open a dialogue with Iran, the next-door neighbor, so it won’t feel threatened by the existence of a democratic republic in its next-door neighbor. And then, of course, we’re going to have to convince the Saudis, the House of Saud, that they will have to begin to import more democratic institutions. And in fact we’re going to have to convince the Kuwaiti royal family that they would have to do something similar. And of course we’re going to have to assure the Turks that in fact we’re not going to support the Kurds in establishing a free homeland, and we’re going to have to persuade the Kurds not to continue to demand a free homeland.

And so what he says is that, The real question isn’t whether the United States is becoming too powerful. The question is - from the perspective of the liberal critique - “are we becoming powerful enough to actually successfully assert the full powers of empire,” which he recommends we prepare to do.


There are 1 census records available for the last name Al Hakim. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Al Hakim census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 7 immigration records available for the last name Al Hakim. Zoznamy cestujúcich sú vašou vstupenkou k tomu, aby ste vedeli, kedy vaši predkovia dorazili do USA a ako sa vydali na cestu - od názvu lode po prístavy príchodu a odchodu.

There are 1,000 military records available for the last name Al Hakim. For the veterans among your Al Hakim ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 1 census records available for the last name Al Hakim. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Al Hakim census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 7 immigration records available for the last name Al Hakim. Zoznamy cestujúcich sú vašou vstupenkou k tomu, aby ste vedeli, kedy vaši predkovia dorazili do USA a ako sa vydali na cestu - od názvu lode po prístavy príchodu a odchodu.

There are 1,000 military records available for the last name Al Hakim. For the veterans among your Al Hakim ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.


4 Einstein Flunked Math

Motivational speakers love to tell this tale, inspiring underachievers with the story of this German kid who was just like you! Despite his sincerest efforts he could never manage to do well in his math exams, and struggled desperately with physics while working as a lowly patent clerk.

That muddled kid grew up to be Albert Fucking Einstein! And if he can do it, then so can you!

Well, no you can't. As it turns out, Einstein was a mathematical prodigy, and before he was 12, he was already better at arithmetic and calculus than you are now. Einstein was in fact so fucking smart that he believed school was holding him back, and his parents purchased advanced textbooks for him to study from. Not only did he pass math with flying colors, it's entirely possible that he was actually teaching the class by the end of semester.

The idea that Einstein did badly at school is thought to have originated with a a 1935 Ripley's Believe it or Not! trivia column.

There's actually a good reason why it's a bad idea to include Robert Ripley among the references in your advanced university thesis. The famous bizarre trivia "expert" never cited his sources, and the various "facts" he presented throughout his career were an amalgamation of things he thought he read somewhere, heard from somebody, or pulled out of his ass. The feature's title probably should have been: Believe it or Not! I Get Paid Either Way, Assholes.

When he was first shown this supposed expose of his early life, Einstein allegedly just laughed, and probably went on to solve another 12 mysteries of quantum physics before dinner. By the time he finally kicked the bucket in 1955, it's entirely possible that "failure" was the one concept that Albert Einstein had never managed to master.

Of course, this just reaffirms what we have always suspected, deep down: success really is decided at birth, and your life will never be better than it is right now. Sorry about that.

Related: Brilliant Is Making Math and Science Easier For The Rest Of Us


By FSTC Published on: 27th April 2005

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Al Hakim Mosque is the second major Fatimid Mosque and the fourth most important religious edifice in Egypt. The articles provides an elaborate account of the Fatimids contribution to its rich architectural design.

Postava 1. Plan of Al-Hakim Mosque showing the five aisled prayer hall and porticoes resembling the Al-Azhar Mosque. Zdroj: M. Hattstein and P. Delius (eds.) (2000), ‘Islam Art and Architecture’, Konemann, Cologne,p.148)

Al-Hakim Mosque was built following the tradition established by the Ibn Tulun and Al-Azhar mosques. It emulated the building forms and techniques of the former and the spatial configuration of the latter. The mosque’s history and magnitude made it the second major Fatimid Mosque and the fourth most important religious edifice in Egypt after the mosques of Amr, Ibn Tulun and Al-Azhar.

Úvod

The reign of the Fatimids was somewhat controversial. The succession of this dynasty to the Caliphate has been accomplished on the ruins of the Abbasid state, a period which saw much of the Muslim civilization’s glories and progress. The Fatimids are also accused of being too soft with Crusaders, in some instances accused of collaborating with them to end the Seljuk rule in the Levant. Whatever their political motives and dealings were, the Fatimids left a considerable architectural and artistic heritage highly admired by historians and collectors.

This brief article assesses the Fatimid architectural contribution in Al-Hakim Mosque which was built between 990 and 1012. Although started by Caliph Al-Aziz in 990, the mosque, as referred to in the name, was completed by Al-Hakim Bi Amrillah (the ruler by the orders of God) who ruled between 996-1021 inheriting the throne from his father al-Aziz (975-996) and grandfather, Caliph Muizz (953-75). However, unlike his predecessors, he was accused of brutality, torture and assassination of his rivals and in turn, he was himself assassinated.

Architecture of the Mosque

Originally built outside Cairo’s northern wall, the mosque was incorporated within the city in 1087 transforming its own northern wall and minarets into an integral part of the fortifications. Al-Hakim, or more precisely Al-Aziz, reused the plan of Al-Azhar mosque with a five aisled prayer hall (sanctuary) and arcaded porticoes. The central nave in front of the mihrab was enlarged and raised higher above the roof accentuating its importance and it was pierced with clerestory windows as at Al Aqsa in Jerusalem. The mihrab itself was defined by a semi-circular dome raised on squinches and standing at the centre of two corner domes of similar design. The trio were clearly introduced to emphasize the Qibla wall. Historic sources indicate that Al-Azhar, built two decades earlier, had similar arrangement with three domes on the Qibla wall. Rivoira who studied the dome of the mihrab concluded that it has retained its original form although there were traces of later restoration work, mainly brick work undertaken during the restoration carried out by Baybars in 1304. However, Rivoira probably went too far in suggesting that the dome form and character was derived from a Roman Sicilian tradition as having “typically Ravennate pendentives”, a reference to the church of Ravenna.

Obrázok 2. General view of the prayer hall showing the raised central nave of the
mihrab and one of the corner domes. Zdroj: M. Hattstein and P. Delius (eds.) (2000), ‘Islam Art and Architecture’, Konemann, Cologne,p.148

The influence of Ibn Tulun Mosque can also be felt in many architectural elements of the Al-Hakim Mosque. The arches supporting the arcades of the sanctuary (prayer hall) as well as the portico were built pointed in Tulunid fashion on robust masonry piers with engaged columns at the corners.

In relation to the original features introduced by the mosque, one can refer to the distinguished façade and its two corner minarets. To create a balance with the apposing sanctuary end, Al-Hakim ordered in 1003 the construction of a monumental façade at the north western end of the courtyard. The centre of this façade was pierced with an imposing masonry gateway of tripartite design unfamiliar in Egypt at that time, but greatly resembling the entrance portal of the Great Mosque of Mahdiya (Tunisia, 916 CE), the first Fatimid capital. These features had considerable impact on the evolution of façade architecture in Egypt, especially on Cairene streets.

Obrázok 3. Corner of Al-Hakim mosque showing the northern minaret in its encasement as well as the ablution fountain. Zdroj: M. Hattstein and P. Delius (eds.) (2000), ‘Islam Art and Architecture’, Konemann, Cologne,p.148

Further influence of the monumentalisation of this entrance is connected to the rise of the highly emphasised portal entrances of the 11 th and 12 th century Romanesque gateways. It is true that the Romans used mainly monumental arches for the celebration of particular victories but they did not attach them to buildings. Furthermore, it has been established beyond doubt that the example of Mahdiya to be indeed the first recorded prototype of such entrances. With their close connections with the Normans in Sicily, the Fatimids played an important role in the transmission of many Muslim architectural themes and techniques to Europe including the use of porches at entrances.

The other original feature of the mosque consists of the two minarets, which despite the newly added sections they represent the oldest surviving examples of the Fatimid period, both raised high at the corners of the north western wall but of differing designs. The minaret of the western corner was erected first on a square substructure changing later into an octagon above the height of the surrounding walls. The minaret of the northern corner was built cylindrical on a square base, contrasting with the rectilinear nature of the rest of the building. In an attempt to address this problem it was decided, in 1010, to build a square salient around the minarets to conceal the imbalance. Another encasement was built around the northern minaret in 1087 when the mosque was incorporated into the city’s boundary. Unfortunately the top sections of these minarets were partly destroyed in an earthquake in 1303 which wrecked the area as well as causing great damage to the mosque. The present heavily corbelled and scalloped towers, which rise out of the heart of the two square salients, belong to the renovation work undertaken after the earthquake by the great Mamluk leader Baybars in 1304. The restoration also extended to a few aisles of the prayer hall which regretfully replaced original damaged pointed arches with horseshoe ones, a feature which destroyed some of the rhythm of these aisles. Many of the remaining parts of the mosque still retain much of their original character sections of the prayer hall with their piers and arches, for example, as well as the mihrab dome survived almost intact. The walls still retain many of their original features and the entrance and minarets much of their bas-relief floriated Kufic friezes, interlineated upended plaques and decorated string course mouldings.

The mosque courtyard or Sahn is a large open area surrounded by a covered arcade (porticoes), three riwaqs deep except from the north western side which is only two riwaqs wide. The boundary walls around the courtyard and on the exterior are surmounted by battlements, a feature which was first introduced to Egypt in Ibn Tulun Mosque and later re-employed in Al-Azhar. This is another motif that was transmitted to Europe, most probably through the influence of mosques of Ibn Tulun, Al-Azhar and Al-Hakim mosques. An example of this is the architect of Palermo Cathedral, built in 1185 CE, who seems to have been so impressed with these battlements that he employed them in the cathedral.


Joy Hakim Puts the 'Story' in US History

DENVER, COLORADO - A good journalist becomes good by learning to weave complicated ideas and simple facts into a compelling narrative that can inform, sometimes without the reader even knowing it's happening.

Joy Hakim is a good journalist, and that's why she decided to write textbooks.

Textbooks! Only the words "Pop Quiz" strike more dread into a student's heart. They are those thick, often boring, dusty tomes that students must slog through during class and for homework. They are almost universally despised for their ability to make even the most interesting topics read like a legal contract.

But the thing is, there is compelling stuff in those bulky science and history books. Ideas that can spark careers and dreams.

And that's what Hakim wants to get at.

Three decades ago, a newspaper asked her to cover a meeting about the poor quality of school textbooks. “I left that meeting astonished by what I had seen," she said. "And I thought, 'Oh, I can take a year and write a U.S. history. No big deal.' It took ten years from the time I started until I actually had a book in hand. And I expected it to be one book. It never occurred to me it would end up ten books.”

This isn't boring!

But it did, and the kids love them.

In one history class at Graland Country Day School in Denver, students are reading one book from Hakim's "A History of Us" series to guide discussions on the Civil War.

"It’s a page turner for sure," says seventh grader Ryan Gaghen. "You don’t realize how much you’re actually learning because it keeps you engaged.”

“It makes me actually want to keep reading instead of saying, 'Oh my gosh, this is over. Thank God!' as I do in other textbooks,” says William Forbes, another student.

WATCH: A History of US in school

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How did Hakim do it? First, she avoided typical publishing protocol, which calls for a collaborate committee of writers she decided her books would have a greater impact if she was the one and only author.

“When you think of the books that you like, the literary books . it’s an author talking to the reader," she says. "Especially somebody who has some passion. I really care about what I’m writing.”

The second rule: everyone needs an editor. So, Hakim recruited world-class subject experts — plus a highly specialized team of product testers. “I actually paid children to be my editors," she says with a laugh. "And then I gave them a code. When you read this manuscript, put in the margin B for boring, G for good, NC for not clear.”

Teaching by telling stories

Most importantly, Hakim says she focused on the time-honored tradition of explaining through stories. Her series has now sold millions of copies and been honored with teacher and parent’s choice awards. So have her science books, including one that starts like this:

Fifteen year old Albert Einstein is miserable. He is trying to finish high school in Germany, but he hates the school, it’s a strict, rigid place. To make things worse, his parents have moved to Italy. They think he should stay behind until his schooling is completed.

Young Einstein gets expelled, and no one today knows exactly why. But Hakim continues the story: . a letter from the school provides a powerful clue. ‘Your presence in the class is disruptive and affects the other students.’

Now who can't relate to that, at some point or another during their education?

Of course, this story has a happy ending: Einstein becomes one of the world’s leading scientists. It’s a theme — that kids don’t have to give up despite setbacks — that appeals to Josiah Davis, another young student of history.

“My favorite story was in [the Civil War book] War, Terrible War, which took place in 1855 to 1865," he says. "It was Chapter Seven, [the part] about Abraham Lincoln and how he went from a country boy basically to a president, and so it’s sort of inspiring to see how someone really small in the world can do something really big.”

Inspiring students to do something big is why history teacher Beth Gaffga uses Hakim’s books for class discussions. She says one of her favorite sentences in the series describes the Reconstruction period after the Civil War as, "hopeless, hopeful times." Talking with Hakim, she says she keeps that phrase on her whiteboard while students learn about the period.

“I have them make predictions," Gaffga says. "What’s going to be hopeless about it. What might be hopeful. And what’s awful and what’s noble. Your sentences make us think, is what I like.”

Hakim is now writing a new series about evolution and biology.

She says it’s challenging to find publishers for the alternative textbooks she writes, but she’ll keep trying for the sake of children and stories that help people think.


With History 100, you receive:

Instructor's Guide

Your History 100 Instructor's Guide (IG) weaves all your materials into one exciting and cohesive program. Starting in this upper-level program, each course includes both a Parent Guide and a separate Student Guide. This means you'll get a History and Bible Parent Guide, as well as a History and Bible Student Guide.

Your Parent Guide mirrors the Student Guide, but also includes answers, provides extra notes and allows you to check their progress and discuss their reading. This format allows you to be as engaged or as hands-off as you and your students like.

História

I built the 100-level program on the foundation of Joy Hakim's award-winning A History of US séria. Her volumes are some of the most fascinating histories I've ever read. Filled with photos, illustrations and political cartoons from across the decades, Hakim draws you in to the story of our nation.

Some homeschoolers use these books with younger students. The books' language is certainly easy enough to understand. But we use them at the junior and senior high levels because of the author's attention to details (like the devastation of the Civil War, Prohibition and the civil unrest of the 1960s) that are simply not as important for elementary students to think about. We also move more quickly through each volume than younger students could.

We balance Hakim's more liberal perspective with extensive notes in the Instructor's Guide. These notes offer counter-arguments to some of Hakim's perspectives. S A History of US and the IG combined, you have an extraordinary tool to help your children think critically about and truly understand American History.

In addition to A History of US, many other Sonlight 100 books bring life to American History. Some highlights include:

  • True tales of American patriots who established a government of free people apart from a king.
  • Real-life glimpses into the wars that shaped American History.
  • The gripping true story of a country preacher who took the gospel to New York City's fiercest gang leaders in the 1960s.
  • And more.

Biblické štúdie

Teach your children to live out their faith. The Sonlight 100 Bible program includes Scripture reading and practical lessons in how to study, interpret and apply the Scriptures in everyday life. Help your students build their theological framework, explore the evidence for our faith and develop discipline in prayer. I put this program together to help you raise children who love God and know what and why they believe.


Al-Ḥākim

Naši redaktori skontrolujú, čo ste odoslali, a rozhodnú, či článok zrevidujú.

Al-Ḥākim, plne Al-ḥākim Bi-amr Allāh (Arabic: “Ruler by God’s Command”), called by Druzes Al-ḥākim Bi-amrih (“Ruler by His Own Command”), pôvodný názov Abū ʿalī Al-manṣūr, byname The Mad Caliph, (born 985—died 1021?), sixth ruler of the Egyptian Shīʿite Fāṭimid dynasty, noted for his eccentricities and cruelty, especially his persecutions of Christians and Jews. He is held by adherents of the Druze religion to be a divine incarnation.

Al-Ḥākim was named caliph in 996 and depended at first on the Berber regiments in his army for his power. When he took control of government, his policies proved to be arbitrary and harsh. He ordered, for example, the sacking of the city al-Fusṭāṭ (near present-day Cairo), the killing of all dogs (whose barking annoyed him), and bans on various kinds of vegetables and shellfish. His religious persecutions affected Sunnite Muslims as well as Jews and Christians. At times, however, his administration was tolerant. During famines he distributed food and tried to stabilize prices. He also founded mosques and patronized scholars and poets. In 1017 he began to encourage the teachings of some Ismāʿīlī missionaries (members of the radical Shīʿite sect to which his dynasty belonged), who held that he was the incarnation of divinity. The Druze religion developed from the teaching of these men.

Al-Ḥākim mysteriously vanished while taking a walk on the night of Feb. 13, 1021.


Historical introduction to philosophy

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Albert Hakim - History


A Brief History Of The Hakimi Family

Foreword: In early 1980's or in and around the time of revolution in Iran, I was about 20 years old and studying for a degree in England. My best friend from high school in Teheran was also studying in England and from time to time I used to stay with him in London. He lived in a complex of apartments in the West End of London. At the time, there were quite a number of other Iranians living there. My friend had always been more impressed than I was with my mother's family pedigree. Soon as he learnt there was a Hakimi living there, he made his acquaintance and eventually introduced us.

I found Mr. Manouchehr Hakimi a slim, tall, white haired, elegant and very kind gentleman from Shiraz, the capital of the Pars (or Fars) Province in Iran. Shiraz is one of the oldest, famous and beautiful cities in Iran. A city where one of the main branches of Hakimi's established itself during the Qajar period owing to their association with the Prince Regent of the time, the infamous Mirza (Prince) Malek Mansour Shoja-ol-Saltaneh. It was customary for the Qajar Prince Regents to be appointed as Governors of Fars and its capital Shiraz was an important seat of government. Unknowingly M Hakimi started my interest in the family history by giving me a copy of a photo of Hakimis in attendance with the Qajar King Mozzafar-e-Din Shah during a state visit to England. On its back, the names of some of the Persian courtiers and politicians were written.

A few years later I was visiting Germany where my sister lives, my cousin from Norway happened to be visiting with his children, the fact that our children did not know each other, were missing the common thread that had bound our family together in Iran, was quite telling of life outside Iran. The above experiences motivated me to try and put this site together.

Although this was not meant to be an exhaustive history through the very kind help of Thomas Rochford (creator of the fantastic Isfahan site), Daee's old friend Mr. Karimzadeh Tabrizi who provided the material from Dr Honarfar's book ( 3 ), Auntie Fataneh, and Parviz Hakimi gave me the clues to research the most exciting story of the beginning of family fortunes which I have tried to narrate below and pages linked. I would have been completely stuck had it not been for Siamak Nikopoor's translation of the Arabic texts of the Hakim Mosque inscriptions. Many thanks also to Massoud Gharajehedaghi whose enthusiasm and support has been tremendous. A number of the pages would simply have not been possible without his contribution and Massoud has checked and rechecked all the pages. The work that we have put in this has been a labour of love and a pleasure. I have tried to design this pages with our children as the primary audience in mind.

Hamid, 21st September 2000, London

We can trace our ancestry back for at least 350 years. In addition to historical references and documents recording the contribution made by the more prominent members of the family to Persian society, there is in Iran a detailed very well documented family tree maintained by Parviz Hakimi. There is an abridged version of the family tree and copies of some of the documents mentioned above available on this site.

To understand some aspects of our family history , let's start with the name, the word Hakim has two meanings, wise and physician or doctor. The ending i simply denotes belonging (in this instance a profession). It was customary in Persia to use one's family profession as part of one's name similar to other societies such as Smiths and Archers in England. Many generations of Hakimis were distinguished physicians and served in the courts of Persian kings. They were honoured and given the title Hakim-el-Molk or literally physician to the land or king.

In early twentieth century when western style surnames were adopted in Iran, they simply used their old family professional name Hakimi as a surname. The maternal influence was very strong, so much so that a number of the children chose their mothers' family name (for example my great grandfather was not a Hakimi yet my grand father and his siblings chose to be callled Hakimi).

Using the above family tree one can trace the Hakimis' beginning to a 17th century physician called Mohammad Davoud (David), his title was Hakim so as not to confuse him with other Mohammad Davouds. He was physician to Shah (King) Safi I and Shah Abbas II of the Safavid dynasty, rulers of Iran in the seventeenth century. He lived in Isfahan: the capital of Iran at that time. The abridged tree starts with Mohammad Davoud and Mirza Hassan Hakim Bashi (Mirza and Bashi are starting and ending titles, Mirza can mean both a Prince and Mister, his name in English would be written as Mr. Hassan, Chief Physician) under Hassan's name it is written that he was "fifth generation after Mohammad Davoud Hakim Physician to Shah Abbas II, and Founder Of the Hakim Mosque". The Hakim Mosque exists today and appears in books about Persian monuments. For a virtual tour of Isfahan and the Hakim Mosque visit the Isfahan website designed by Thomas C Rochford. The information on the web page dedicated to the Hakim Mosque on the Isfahan site pointed the way to finding out what we now know about Mohammad Davoud.

While living in India, Mohammad Davoud financed the building of the Hakim Mosque which was completed in 1662 on the site of an earlier 10th century mosque. Before going to India, Mohammad Davoud Hakim was a prominent member of the Safavid court in Iran. Mohammad Davoud had to leave the court of Shah Abbas II under mysterious circumstances and spent the rest of his life in India and in the court of the Truco-Persian rulers of India. He is mentioned in the writings of 17th century European travelers of the time, namely Sir John (Jean) Chardin a French traveller in Iran, Francois Bernier a French physician who traveled in mid 17th century India, and Manucci a Venetian who traveled and lived in India 3, 4 & 5 & 10 . He became a prominent member of the court of the Mongol Emperor of India, Shah Jahan who built the famous Taj Mahal as a mausoleum for his beloved wife and then his son Aurengzeb, which allowed him to send funds to his family in Isfahan to build the mosque and preserve their status in society.

Prior to the rise of the English in India, the Persians occupied very senior positions in the court of Indian rulers. Persian was the official language of the court and Persians often served as physicians, lord chamberlins, administrators and chancellors. The picture of Aurangzeb above is an Indian document currently in the British Museum (where else?) yet it is a Persian miniature and the text at the bottom is in Persian: "Shuja, Aurenzeb, and Murad Baksh" - Shuja and Murad Baksh were his brothers. The nobles in the court were referred to as Omara meaning chieftans. Mohammad Davoud Hakim is listed in the books about nobility of India of this period.

In later periods other descendants of Mohammad Davoud became physicians to the court and their role as physicians to the court of Qajar (1770-1925) is well recorded. In those times it was quite usual for sons to follow in their fathers' footsteps and continue the family tradition. We have documented evidence of two Hakimi ancestors being given the title Hakim-el-Molk during the Qajar reign. They were Mirza Mahmoud Khan and Ebrahim Hakimi. They were uncle and nephew and since the both the same title this can cause confusion. Indeed Persian titles make study of history very confusing at times. Unlike Europe the noble families in the East, did not enjoy automatic hereditary rights as everything belonged to the king. Although a title would often pass from father to son, it was not a given right. Indeed sometimes the kings would remove a person's title who had either died or fallen out of favour and grant it to someone unrelated.

Hakimis also beame involved in politics and held senior posts in various branches of government and the military. Notable examples were: Mirza Ali Naghi Hakim Bashi physician to Mozzafar-e-din Shah (ruled 1896-1907) when the latter was the crown prince, Mirza Abolhassan Hakim Bashi physician to the court of Qajars, Mirza Mahmoud Khan Hakim-el-Molk (Ali Naghi's son) was physician to Mozzafar-e-Din Shah and Minister of the Imperial Court. Mirza Mahmoud became one of the well known courtiers in the 19th and early 20th centuries. His nephew who everyone usually recognises as Hakim-el-Molk, Mirza Ebrahim (Abraham in English) Khan Hakim-el-Molk, or using his modern name Ebrahim Hakimi was one of the founding fathers of democracy in Iran as he became one of the leaders of the movement for constitutional monarchy in Iran. Before he became one of the leaders of the 1906 revolution he worked behind the scenes to bring a peaceful end to the revolution.

He made sure the Shah was aware of the aims and feelings of people thereby preventing the reactionary members of the Qajar dynasty from tainting the Shah's view of the constitutional movement who believed wrongly that the ultimate aim of the revolution was to overthrow the Qajars. It is said that Ebrahim used to slip revolutionary material (shab nameh) into Mozzafar-e-din Shah's palace at night and place it under his pillow. Ebrahim was elected to the first parliament in 1907 and left the court after the death of Mozzafar-e-Din Shah as he found the political atmosphere in the Qajar Court stifling. He held numerous ministerial posts, some times at very crucial stages in the history of Iran. According to historians he was brave, honest and a hard working patriotic politician. It is very hard for us to imagine the conditions of Iran in the late 19th and early 20th century when corruption and colonial interference was tearing the country apart.

In 1909 Ibrahim was one of the leaders of the committee responsible for restoration of constitutional monarchy and running of the country after Mohammad Ali Shah's dethronement and exile to Russia ( 1 ). Since he had an impeccable reputation as a man of integrity and honesty he was put in charge of reforming the court and riding the court of all the corrupt Qajar family courtiers. The young Shah was about 12 years starý. One of Ebrahim's first acts was to fire Sultan Ahmad Shah's Russian Tutor (Lieutenant Smirnoff) who was suspected of being a Russian spy (1 & 8). This seemingly trivial act was in fact a very courageous for its time, in those days Iran was centre stage for 'The Great Game' or the competition between two powerful colonial powers, Russian and Britain. Iranian ruling class and government had become for the most part subservient to the two colonial powers and people in the government rarely acted without first consulting the representatives of the great powers. In fact the dimissal of Smirnoff caused a big diplomatic row with the Russian government. The Russians insisted on Smirnoff's reinstatement, but the revolutionary leaders remained resolute and supported Ebrahim's decision. He then established a school for the young Shah with Iranian tutors and schoolmates(7). The tutors were prominent Iranian scholars such as Zoka-el-Molk (Foroughi) who later during Reza Shah rejuvenated the Persian language by reintroducing Persian vocabulary to replace Arabic vocabulary.

During the fight with Mohammad Ali Shah, Ebrahim's brother General Musa (Moses) Nazm-ol-Saltaneh also showed exceptional bravery. He was one of the senior commanders in the Qajar military, yet during the 1906 revolution he joined the ranks of the freedom fighters defending the newly found democracy. He was one of the military commanders of the freedom fighters who regained the control of Teheran and drove away the Russian led forces of Mohammad Ali Qajar who had tried to overturn constitutional monarchy by having the Russian led Persian Cossack Brigade bombarding the Parliament with their artillary.

Ebrahim held many senior ministerial positions during the Qajar period and later under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. He had withdrawn from politics during the reign of Reza Shah. Toward the end of the Second World War, Ebrahim became prime minister of Iran three times during crucial stages of Iranian history. He and his peers from 1906 played an intricate game of playing the now three super powers (America, Britain and Soviet Russia) to keep Iran's independence. The independence of the country was seriously under threat in 1945 (1324) from the Russians. When he became prime minister, most of northern Iran was under Russian occupation and the Red Army had dug in 5 miles outside Teheran's gates with no intention of leaving. In contravention to the agreement made among the Allies, the Russians had illegally also occupied the North East and East of the country. He instructed the Foreign Minister in his cabinet - Anoshiravan Sepahbodi - to give written notice to the Allies to leave Iran as the Second World war had come to an end and there was no justification for the occupying troops to remain in Iran. His team brought one of the first complaints to the Security Council of the newly formed United Nations in London. This started a well recorded chapter in history of Iran (1).

My grandfather who I was named after, Abdolhamid Hakimi served in variety of senior government positions and ministries as a career civil servant. But that is a poor description for someone with such a wide experience who occupied numerous roles all at the forefront of Iranian modernisation before and after the second world war. He either oversaw or was closely involved in bringing major reforms such as: introduction of standard Persian text books for schools in Iran, Project Manager for the first Medical faculty in Iran (Teheran University), English replacing French as a second language in Iranian education system, and Land reform. As a permanent undersecretary in Ministry of Agriculture implemented the plan to reform the feudal system of land ownership in Iran as decreed by Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. Reform of the ancient feudal structure was by far the biggest reform in Iranian society since it changed at a stroke thousands of years of feudal ownership of agricultural land. The above reforms were opposed not only by the landowners but by the clergy as land bequeathed to the clergy for charity provided them with their financial base. The reform made the rift between the Pahlavi dynasty and the clergy ever wider. Abdolhamid held liberal attitudes in all aspects of life. His first wife Nossrat Taslimi Moghadam, was among the first women to shed the veil long before women's liberation as a civil servant in the Ministry of Education and later became a magistrate. She was a member of the women's association.


Hakim, Albert B.

Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2006

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Condition: Very Good

Brožovaná väzba. Condition: Very Good. Dust Jacket Condition: No Dust Jacket. Fifth Edition. Gently used in very good condition. The text appears clean throughout the book. The pages look great and so does the cover. May have some light wear from storage such as corner bumps and dings. Multiple copies available this title. Quantity Available: 12. Shipped Weight: Under 1 kilo. ISBN: 0131900056. ISBN/EAN: 9780131900059. Pictures of this item not already displayed here available upon request. Inventory No: 1561049144.


Pozri si video: Albert Hakim, City Management Group and Angelo Rea, Flagstar Bank (Júl 2022).


Komentáre:

  1. Welford

    Instead of criticizing, write your options better.

  2. Elhanan

    Myslím, že sa mýlite. Pošlite mi e -mail v PM, budeme diskutovať.

  3. Aegelweard

    Prečo mám polovicu textu v nejakom pokrivenom kódovaní?



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