Zaujímavé

Čierna veža v Castelgrande v Bellinzone

Čierna veža v Castelgrande v Bellinzone


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Castelgrande

Prvé ľudské osídlenie na kopci San Michele pochádza z obdobia 5500/5000 pred n. L., V období neolitu. Prvé archeologicky potvrdené opevnenie bolo postavené vo štvrtom storočí n. L. Prítomnosť pevnosti pripomína aj množstvo dokumentov pochádzajúcich zo šiesteho storočia. V štrnástom storočí sa hrad prvýkrát nazýval Castrum Magnum alebo „Castel Grande“. Tak sa volá aj dnes. Počas švajčiarskej okupácie sa mu však hovorilo Uri (1630) alebo Altdorfský hrad a v roku 1818 hrad San Michele.

Hradný komplex, ktorý je v súčasnosti viditeľný, sa datuje do niekoľkých období: najskoršia stavba z trinásteho storočia bola postavená počas „milánskej“ fázy (1473-1486), po ktorej nasledovala obnova na začiatku 16. storočia a rozsiahle generálne opravy. v roku 1800. Jeho súčasná podoba je výsledkom najnovších náhrad (1984-1991) od architekta Aurelia Galfettiho.

Hradbová stena je rozdelená na 3 segmenty. Z jednej z nich sa 2 vetvy múrov rozšírili až do mesta a naraz sa spojili s tými, ktoré schádzali z Hrad Montebello. Práve tieto múry dedinu dávno chránili.

Na druhej strane je obranný val, ktorý v čase milánskych vojvodov Viscontiho siahal až k brehom rieky Ticino. Postavený na konci štrnásteho storočia, v rokoch 1486 až 1489 ho posilnili Sforzovci s mostom cez rieku a vežou proti hore, ktoré boli čiastočne zničené zosuvom „buzza di Biasca“ v roku 1515.

Z bulváru elegantnej 27-metrovej Torre Bianca alebo Bielej veže (1250-1350) si vychutnajte 360-stupňový výhľad a pôsobivú 28-metrovú Torre Nera alebo Čiernu vežu (1310), ktorá je domovom Úniková miestnosť rovnakého mena, kde na vás čaká vzrušujúca výzva!

Vonku prirodzený senzorická stopa poskytuje zábavný objaviteľský zážitok naboso pre dospelých aj pre deti.

A pre tých, ktorí ocenia dobré jedlo, rafinované Ristorante Castelgrande ponúka autentické a vynikajúce jedlá, pričom Jaskyňa S. Michele ponúka typické miestne menu, ktoré si môžete vychutnať zvnútra alebo zvonka na terase a obdivovať očarujúci panoramatický výhľad.

Hrad zaručuje správnu kombináciu kultúry a oddychu. Vydajte sa pešo na strmé chodníky z Piazza Collegiata, Piazza Nosetto, po Via Orico, po pohodlnej ceste z Piazza Orico, od obranného múru alebo od Piazzetta Della Valle s pohodlným vlekom.

Castelgrande ponúka a múzeum otvorené pre návštevníkov, ako aj prezentáciu. Nenechajte si ujsť fascinujúce dočasné národné a medzinárodné výstavy a výstavy v Sala Arsenale.


Múzeum a InfoPoint sú otvorené celoročne
01.04.2021 - 07.11.2021: od 10:00 do 18:00
08.11.2021 - 31.03.2022: od 10:30 do 16:00


Prístupnosť
Prístup k hradom pre osoby s obmedzenou schopnosťou pohybu je len čiastočný. Ak chcete získať ďalšie informácie, kontaktujte InfoPoint na hrade.

Pass Bellinzona
Pass Bellinzona je vstupenkou na Tri hrady Bellinzona a občianske múzeum Villa dei Cedri.

Partnerský lístok Ticino

Vďaka lístku Ticino môžete túto atrakciu navštíviť za zľavnenú cenu. Spýtajte sa na lístok vo svojom hoteli, kempingu alebo hosteli a zistite všetky ponuky, ktoré môžete dostať.


Castelgrande

Táto pevnosť sa nachádza v dolnej časti Bellinzona a tiež známy ako hrad San Michele, bol postavený v 13. storočí.

Nachádza sa v samom srdci mesta a je z neho prístupný Piazza del Sole s moderným výťahom. Na vrchole je obrovská miestnosť plná trávnikov a budov pevnosti.

Čo je najviac prekvapujúce, je pohľad na jeho dve impozantné veže: čiernu vežu s 27 metrami a bielu vežu s 28 metrami.

Na ten posledný sa dá liezť a obdivovať fantastický výhľad na hrady Bellinzona zo svojej strechy. Z vrcholu môžete tiež obdivovať čiernu vežu a jej kamenný most, ktorý spája obe veže, ako aj mesto a okolité hory.


Castelgrande

Prvé ľudské osídlenie na kopci San Michele pochádza z obdobia 5500/5000 pred n. L., V období neolitu. Prvé archeologicky potvrdené opevnenie bolo postavené vo štvrtom storočí nášho letopočtu. Prítomnosť pevnosti pripomína aj množstvo dokumentov pochádzajúcich zo šiesteho storočia. V štrnástom storočí bol hrad prvýkrát nazývaný Castrum Magnum alebo „Castel Grande“. Tak sa volá aj dnes. Počas švajčiarskej okupácie sa mu však hovorilo Uri (1630) alebo Altdorfský hrad a v roku 1818 hrad San Michele.

Hradný komplex, ktorý je v súčasnej dobe viditeľný, pochádza z radu období: najskoršia stavba z trinásteho storočia bola postavená počas „milánskej“ fázy (1473-1486), po ktorej nasledovala obnova na začiatku 16. storočia a rozsiahle opravy v roku 1800. Jeho súčasná podoba je výsledkom najnovších náhrad (1984-1991) od architekta Aurelia Galfettiho.

Hradbová stena je rozdelená na 3 segmenty. Z jednej z nich sa 2 vetvy múrov rozšírili až do mesta a naraz sa spojili s tými, ktoré schádzali z Hrad Montebello. Práve tieto múry dedinu dávno chránili.

Na druhej strane je obranný val, ktorý v čase milánskych vojvodov Viscontiho siahal až k brehom rieky Ticino. Postavený na konci štrnásteho storočia, v rokoch 1486 až 1489 ho posilnili Sforzovci s mostom cez rieku a vežou proti hore, ktoré boli čiastočne zničené zosuvom „buzza di Biasca“ v roku 1515.

Z bulváru elegantnej 27-metrovej Torre Bianca alebo Bielej veže (1250-1350) si vychutnajte 360-stupňový výhľad a pôsobivú 28-metrovú Torre Nera alebo Čiernu vežu (1310), ktorá je domovom Úniková miestnosť rovnakého mena, kde na vás čaká vzrušujúca výzva!

Vonku prirodzené senzorická stopa poskytuje zábavný objavný zážitok naboso pre dospelých aj pre deti.

A pre tých, ktorí ocenia dobré jedlo, rafinované Ristorante Castelgrande ponúka autentické a vynikajúce jedlá, pričom Jaskyňa S. Michele ponúka typické miestne menu, ktoré si môžete vychutnať zvnútra alebo zvonka na terase a obdivovať očarujúci panoramatický výhľad.

Hrad zaručuje správnu kombináciu kultúry a oddychu. Vydajte sa pešo na strmé chodníky z Piazza Collegiata, Piazza Nosetto, po Via Orico, po pohodlnej ceste z Piazza Orico, od obranného múru alebo od Piazzetta Della Valle s pohodlným vlekom.

Castelgrande ponúka a múzeum otvorené pre návštevníkov, ako aj prezentáciu. Nenechajte si ujsť fascinujúce dočasné národné a medzinárodné výstavy a výstavy v Sala Arsenale.


Múzeum a InfoPoint sú otvorené celoročne
01.04.2021 - 07.11.2021: od 10:00 do 18:00
08.11.2021 - 31.03.2022: od 10:30 do 16:00


Prístupnosť
Prístup k hradom pre osoby s obmedzenou schopnosťou pohybu je len čiastočný. Ak chcete získať ďalšie informácie, kontaktujte InfoPoint na hrade.

Pass Bellinzona
Pass Bellinzona je vstupenkou na Tri hrady Bellinzona a občianske múzeum Villa dei Cedri.

Partnerský lístok Ticino

Vďaka lístku Ticino môžete túto atrakciu navštíviť za zľavnenú cenu. Spýtajte sa na lístok vo svojom hoteli, kempingu alebo hosteli a zistite všetky ponuky, ktoré môžete dostať.


Obsah

Toponym je prvýkrát osvedčený v roku 590 v latinskom jazyku as Belitio alebo Bilitio (v akuzatíve, Bilitionem), Gregorom z Tours. [6] Názov je leponického pôvodu, pravdepodobne z belitio („borievka“) alebo belitione („kríky borievky“). [7]

V stredoveku sa názov nachádza ako Berinzona (721, 762, 803, 1002), Birrinzona (1004), Birizona (1168), Beliciona (901, 977) a Belinzona (1055). [8] Nemecký názov mesta je Bellenz. Názov odvodzuje miestna ľudová etymológia Bellinzona od zona bellica „vojnovej zóny“, čím sa nadväzuje na talianske vojny.

Erb obecného erbu je vzpriamený strieborný had na červenom poli. Báječné zviera sa v taliančine nazýva „Biscione“. Toto zviera, ktoré sa nachádza aj na ramenách automobilky Alfa Romeo, je späté s rodinou Visconti, ktorí boli v 14. a 15. storočí feudálmi z Bellinzony. [9]

Predhistória a doba rímska Edit

Bellinzona vždy zaujímala dôležité geografické miesto v Alpách. Na juh je údolie Pádu prístupné nížinnou cestou údolím rieky Ticino a jazerom Maggiore. Na severe údolie Ticina vedie k vysokohorským priesmykom Nufenen, St. Gotthard, Lukmanier a San Bernardino. Aj keď je San Jorio Pass na východe teraz málo používaný, bol v minulosti Bellinzony tiež dôležitý. [10]

Aj keď bol región obsadený od mladšieho neolitu [10] [11], až v neskorom 1. storočí pred naším letopočtom bola v tejto oblasti postavená pevnosť za vlády rímskeho cisára Augusta. Kým v nasledujúcich storočiach pevnosť chátrala, v 4. storočí nášho letopočtu bola prestavaná a výrazne rozšírená. Za vlády Diokleciána a Konštantína bola postavená reťaz hradov a strážnych veží na ochranu severného Talianska pred inváziou. Poloha Bellinzony bola uznaná za kľúčový bod obrany a na ochranu hradieb bol postavený veľký hrad. Mesto, ktoré vyrástlo okolo opevnenia, bolo známe ako Bilitio.

Po rozpade Západorímskej ríše nástupnícke štáty, medzi ktoré patrili Ostrogóti okolo roku 500 n. L., Východná byzantská ríša do polovice 6. storočia a Longobardi z roku 568/70, prevzali kontrolu nad Bellinzonou a hrad použili na presadiť kontrolu nad okolitými prihrávkami. Pod Longobardmi sa Bellinzona stala miestom stálej posádky, ktorá mala chrániť región pred nájazdmi susedných franských a alemanských kmeňov. [12] Z Bellinzony riadili Longobardi dopravu na dôležitej obchodnej ceste z Varese cez Ponte Tresa, priesmyk Monte Ceneri, Biasca a nakoniec cez priesmyk Lukmanier do Churu. Niektorí vedci sa domnievajú, že Bellinzona mohla byť hlavným mestom okresu, ktorý zahŕňal väčšinu údolí v Ticine. [12]

Raný stredovek Upraviť

Okolo roku 774 získalo Franské kráľovstvo (z neho Karolínska ríša) kontrolu nad údolím Ticina vrátane Bellinzony.

Asi o dve storočia neskôr cisár Svätej ríše rímskej Otto III., Ktorý sa snažil obnoviť silu slávy starovekého Ríma a expandovať do Talianska, otvoril priechody Lukmanier a St. Bernard. Ovládanie Bellinzony bolo kľúčovou súčasťou tejto expanzie. Mesto bolo prevzaté z Milána a darované komskému biskupovi, ktorý podporoval otónsku dynastiu. V roku 1002, po smrti Otta III., Sa markíz Arduino z Ivrea vyhlásil za talianskeho kráľa a ratifikoval biskupovo vlastníctvo Castelgrande a mesto. O dva roky neskôr, potom, čo Arduina porazil nemecký kráľ Henrich II., Muž Henricha II. Enrico II., Znova dar daroval Castlegrande o biskupovi v Comu. [13] Mesto sa v stredovekých prameňoch spomína v roku 1218 ako Bilizione.

Konflikty medzi pápežom a cisárom Edit

Počas sporu o investitúru na konci 11. storočia sa mesto Bellinzona s hradom dostalo pod kontrolu Švábskeho Hohenstaufena. V roku 1180 však Frederick I. (Barbarossa) zaradil mesto pod jurisdikciu mesta Como. [13] V nasledujúcich rokoch mal Como tendenciu podporovať pápeža v jeho konfliktoch so svätým rímskym cisárom. V roku 1239 sa však Como postavil na stranu cisára Fridricha II., Ktorý rýchlo presunul sily do Bellinzony a posilnil Castelgrande. V roku 1242 Milan poslal guelphské (alebo pro-pápežské) sily pod velením Simone di Orello, aby dobyli Bellinzonu. [13] Mesto a hrad boli dobyté, čo oslabilo cisára južne od Álp. V roku 1249 však bolo mesto opäť pod jurisdikciou Coma. [12] Konflikty v severnom Taliansku pokračovali, Castelgrande bol niekoľkokrát obliehaný v rokoch 1284, 1292 a 1303. Počas tejto doby rodina Rusca v Comu, rodina Ghibelline alebo pro-Imperial, bojovala s rastúcou mocou Milána v rámci pro-pápežského domu Viscontiho s obmedzeným úspechom. Koncom 13. storočia postavila rodina Ruscovcov ďalší hrad, Montebello, v Bellinzone, ktorú ovládali. Bolo to šťastné, pretože v roku 1335 rodinu Rusca vyhnali z Coma a museli sa stiahnuť do Bellinzony. O päť rokov neskôr, v roku 1340, Milan obliehal Bellinzonu. Po dlhom obliehaní mesto padlo do Milána, ale Ruscasom bolo umožnené držať sa Montebello. [13] Pro-pápežstvo Milan by dominoval v Bellinzone počas nasledujúceho a pol storočia, hoci časť mesta obsadila aj pro-cisárska Rusca.

Rozšírenie Bellinzony pod Milan Edit

Pod kontrolou Viscontiho obchod prekvital a Bellinzona rástla. Keď sa alternatívna trasa cez Alpy, otvoril most Schöllenen, premávka v meste St. Gotthard stúpla na najvyššie úrovne vôbec. [14] V priebehu druhej polovice 14. storočia dlhý múr, Murata, bol postavený naprieč údolím Tessin, čo Milánu umožnilo chrániť a zdaňovať obchodnú cestu cez priesmyk St. Gotthard. [12] Kým mesto bolo po roku 1340 ovládané Milanom prostredníctvom Visconti, Visconti nemali formálny titul a feudálne práva až do roku 1396, keď ich udelil kráľ Václav. Uspokojený rast Bellinzony bol však ohrozený v roku 1402, keď vojvoda Gian Galeazzo Visconti zomrel. V roku 1403 dostala Bellinzona pod kontrolu Alberto di Sacco z Val Mesolcina, ktorý ho držal až do roku 1419, kým ho prevzali Uri a Obwalden a ktorý sa rozšíril do údolia Leventiny. Milan napadol mesto o tri roky neskôr v roku 1422 potom, čo Švajčiarska konfederácia odmietla ponuku na kúpu mesta. Vojská z Uri a Obwaldenu boli rýchlo vytlačené z mesta a neskôr porazené v bitke pri Arbede 30. júna 1422. Táto porážka na určitý čas odradila expanzívne úmysly Uri a jeho spojencov smerom k jazeru Maggiore.

V období nepokojov po smrti Giana Galeazza Viscontiho bola veža, ktorá sa stala jadrom tretieho hradu, Sasso Corbaro, bol postavený mimo mesta.

Zatiaľ čo hranica medzi Uri a Milánom bola stanovená v mierovej zmluve z roku 1426, v roku 1439 Uri opäť napadol. Aj keď neboli schopní vziať Bellinzonu, víťazstvá švajčiarskych vojsk viedli k tomu, že Miláno udelilo celé Leventinské údolie Pollegioovi Uriho v roku 1441. Po smrti vojvodu Filipa Maria Viscontiho v roku 1447 bola Bellinzona uprostred nástupníckej krízy medzi Franchinom Ruscom z Locarna a Heinrichom z Val Mesolcina, ktorí boli spojencami Uriho a Ambrosianskej republiky v Miláne. Vojna po nástupníckej kríze trvala takmer tri roky, kým sa moci v Miláne chopil Francesco I. Sforza. Bellinzona rýchlo prijala novú dynastiu Sforzovcov a mier a stabilitu, ktoré nasledovali. [12]

Mier bol opäť narušený v roku 1478, keď Švajčiari opäť neúspešne zaútočili na Bellinzonu. Švajčiarsku hrdosť však obnovila bitka pri Giorniku, ktorá nasledovala a kde sila 600 švajčiarskych vojakov porazila 10 000 milánskych vojakov. Po útoku Milan postavil Sasso Corbaro buď na mieste veže, ktorá bola postavená takmer pred storočím. [12] Ostatné dva hrady boli posilnené a Murata múr cez dolinu bol prestavaný. Väčšina moderných hradov a opevnení pochádza z tohto obdobia výstavby na konci 15. storočia.

Spolupracovník Švajčiarskej konfederácie Edit

V roku 1499 sa takmer jeden a pol storočia milánskej nadvlády skončilo inváziou Milána francúzskym Ľudovítom XII. Zajal Bellinzonu a obával sa útoku Švajčiarov, opevnil Castelgrande s 1000 vojakmi. [15] Celú zimu 1499/1500 v Bellinzone narastali nepokoje, až do januára, keď ozbrojené povstanie občanov Bellinzony vyhnalo francúzske vojská z mesta. Po zajatí a poprave Ludovica Sforzu v apríli 1500 a hľadaní ochrany pred Francúzskom sa Bellinzona 14. apríla 1500 pripojila k Švajčiarskej konfederácii ako kondomínium pod spoločnou správou Uri, Schwyz a Nidwalden. Po napoleonskej invázii do Švajčiarska v roku 1798 bola Bellinzona hlavným mestom kantónu Bellinzona v Helvétskej republike (1798 - 1803).

Bellinzona od roku 1803 Upraviť

Podľa zákona o mediácii v roku 1803 sa Bellinzona stala súčasťou nezávislého kantónu Ticino a hlavného mesta nového kantónu od roku 1803 do roku 1814. Od toho dátumu do roku 1878 sa Bellinzona, Lugano a Locarno každých šesť rokov striedali ako hlavné mesto. V roku 1878 sa Bellinzona stala hlavným mestom kantónu.

K mestu patrí obec Artore a od založenia v roku 1907 bývalé obce Carasso, Daro a Ravecchia.

V roku 1874 sa otvorili prvé úseky Gotthardskej železnice, spájajúce Bellinzonu s Biascou a Locarnom. V roku 1882 bola celá trať otvorená a siahala na sever do severného Švajčiarska Gotthardským tunelom, na juh do Lugana a Milána cez priesmyk Monte Ceneri a po východnom brehu jazera Maggiore do Luina. V rokoch 1907 a 1972 bola Bellinzona prepojená s Mesoccom a inými komunitami Val Mesolcina železnicou Bellinzona – Mesocco.

Dňa 2. apríla 2017 sa bývalé susedné obce Camorino, Claro, Giubiasco, Gnosca, Gorduno, Gudo, Moleno, Monte Carasso, Pianezzo, Preonzo, Sant'Antonio a Sementina zlúčili do Bellinzony. [16]

Bellinzona sa nachádza v údolí rieky Ticino, v nadmorskej výške 240 metrov (790 stôp). Centrum mesta leží asi 1 kilometer (0,62 mi) východne od rieky, pričom mestská oblasť je obmedzená na dolné a dolné svahy údolia. Hranice obce však siahajú po oboch stranách údolia do nadmorskej výšky 2 240 metrov na západ a 2 195 metrov na východ. [3]

Mesto sa nachádza v mieste, kde rieka Ticino, ktorá tečie všeobecne južným smerom, robí odbočku na západ, ktorou preteká širokým Pionoa di Magadino pred vstupom do jazera Maggiore a po jeho dosiahnutí talianske údolie Po a Lombardia.

Proti prúdu prúdi niekoľko údolí do vysokých Álp, s prístupom do severného Švajčiarska cez Passo del San Gottardo alebo cez Passo del San Gottardo cez Valle Leventina, horné údolie Ticina, a ďalej na západ s prístupom k Wallis cez Nufenen Pass cez Val Bedretto a prístup k Grisonian Surselva predného Rýna cez Valle di Blenio cez Lukmanierský priesmyk. Rieka Moesa tečúca údolím Valle Mesolcina zo priesmyku San Bernardino s prístupom do Gresionského údolia Rheinwald zadného Rýna, sa pripája k Ticinu na severnej hranici mesta. [3]

Na juhu prechádza priesmyk Monte Ceneri cez Lugano Prealps, aby sa sprístupnil jazero Lugano a alternatívna trasa do Lombardie, zatiaľ čo priesmyk San Jorio poskytuje možnú trasu na východ k hornému jazeru Como. [3] [10]

Mesto Bellinzona má rozlohu od roku 1997 [aktualizácia] 19,15 km² (7,39 km²). Z tejto oblasti je 4,21 km 2 (1,63 sq mi) alebo 22,0% využívaných na poľnohospodárske účely, zatiaľ čo 11,96 km 2 (4,62 sq mi) alebo 62,5% je zalesnených. Zo zvyšku územia je 4,55 km 2 (1,76 sq mi) alebo 23,8% osídlených (budovy alebo cesty), 0,47 km 2 (0,18 sq mi) alebo 2,5% sú buď rieky alebo jazerá a 0,09 km 2 (22 akrov) alebo 0,5% je neproduktívna pôda. [17] Zo zastavanej plochy priemyselné budovy tvorili 1,6% z celkovej plochy, zatiaľ čo domy a budovy tvorili 13,0%. Dopravná infraštruktúra tvorila 5,8%, zatiaľ čo parky, zelené pásy a športoviská tvorili 2,7%. Z lesnatej pôdy je 60,1% z celkovej plochy krajiny silne zalesnenej a 1,9% je pokrytých sadmi alebo malými skupinami stromov. Z poľnohospodárskej pôdy sa 6,6% využíva na pestovanie plodín, zatiaľ čo 2,5% sa používa na sady alebo vinič a 13,0% na vysokohorské pasienky. Všetka voda v obci tečie. [17]

Bellinzona má stály počet obyvateľov (k decembru 2019 [aktualizácia]) 43 279 [18]. V roku 2008 bolo 29,4% populácie cudzích štátnych príslušníkov. [19] V rokoch 1997 až 2007 sa populácia menila 0,7%.

Väčšina populácie (od roku 2000 [aktualizácia]) hovorí taliansky (87,4%), pričom nemčina je druhá najčastejšia (3,6%) a srbochorvátčina tretia (2,5%). [20] Zo švajčiarskych národných jazykov (k roku 2000 [aktualizácia]) 14 392 ľudí hovorí taliansky, 590 hovorí nemecky, 189 ľudí hovorí francúzsky a 13 ľudí hovorí románsky. Zvyšok (1 279 ľudí) hovorí iným jazykom. [21] Metropolitná oblasť Bellinzona mala 47 128 obyvateľov, [22] rozdelená do 16 obcí.

V roku 2008 [aktualizácia] bolo rodové rozdelenie populácie 46,6% mužov a 53,4% žien. Populáciu tvorilo 5 503 švajčiarskych mužov (31,8% populácie) a 2 567 (14,8%) nešvajčiarskych mužov. Švajčiarskych žien bolo 6 781 (39,1%) a 2 472 (14,3%) nešvajčiarskych žien. [23]

V roku 2008 [aktualizácia] došlo k 132 živým pôrodom švajčiarskych občanov a 45 pôrodov k občanom mimo Švajčiarska a v tom istom časovom období došlo k 132 úmrtiam švajčiarskych občanov a 15 úmrtiam švajčiarskych občanov. Ignorujúc prisťahovalectvo a emigráciu, populácia švajčiarskych občanov zostala rovnaká, zatiaľ čo zahraničná populácia sa zvýšila o 30. Švajčiarskych mužov emigrovalo zo Švajčiarska do inej krajiny, 3 Švajčiarky emigrovali zo Švajčiarska do inej krajiny, 67 nešvajčiarskych mužov. ktorí emigrovali zo Švajčiarska do inej krajiny a 70 nešvajčiarskych žien, ktoré emigrovali zo Švajčiarska do inej krajiny. Celková zmena švajčiarskej populácie v roku 2008 (zo všetkých zdrojov) bola nárastom o 377 a nešvajčiarska populačná zmena znamenala pokles o 202 ľudí. To predstavuje tempo rastu populácie o 1,0%. [19]

Vekové rozdelenie k roku 2009 [aktualizácia] v Bellinzone je 1 530 detí alebo 8,8% populácie je vo veku od 0 do 9 rokov a 1623 tínedžerov alebo 9,4% je medzi 10 a 19. Z dospelej populácie 2 091 ľudí alebo 12,1 % populácie je vo veku 20 až 29 rokov. 2 526 ľudí alebo 14,6% je medzi 30 a 39, 2721 ľudí alebo 15,7% je medzi 40 a 49 a 2 260 ľudí alebo 13,0% je medzi 50 a 59. Distribúcia staršej populácie je 1 969 ľudí alebo 11,4% populácie je medzi 60 a vo veku 69 rokov je 1 470 ľudí alebo 8,5% vo veku 70 až 79 rokov, existuje 1 133 osôb alebo 6,5% ľudí vo veku 80 až 89 rokov. [23]

K roku 2000 [aktualizácia] žilo v obci 7 294 súkromných domácností a v priemere na jednu domácnosť pripadalo 2,2 osôb. [20] V roku 2000 [aktualizácia] tu bolo 1 490 rodinných domov (alebo 51,5% z celkového počtu) z celkového počtu 2 892 obývaných budov. Jednalo sa o 419 dvoch rodinných domov (14,5%) a 642 rodinných domov (22,2%). V obci bolo aj 341 budov, ktoré boli viacúčelovými budovami (slúžili na bývanie aj na podnikanie alebo na iný účel). [24]

Miera neobsadenosti v obci v roku 2008 [aktualizácia] bola 1,45%. Z bytov bolo trvalo obsadených 7 255 bytov (85,8%z celkového počtu), pričom sezónne bolo obsadených 932 bytov (11,0%) a prázdnych bolo 268 bytov (3,2%). [25] V roku 2000 [aktualizácia] bolo v obci 8 455 bytov. Najbežnejšou veľkosťou bytu bol 3-izbový byt, ktorého bolo 2 746. K dispozícii bolo 474 jednoizbových bytov a 1 253 bytov s piatimi a viac izbami. [25] V roku 2007 [aktualizácia] bola miera výstavby nových bytových jednotiek 6,2 nových jednotiek na 1 000 obyvateľov. [20]

V roku 2003 [aktualizovať] priemerná cena za prenájom priemerného bytu v Bellinzone bola 956,03 švajčiarskych frankov (CHF) mesačne (760 USD, 430 GBP, 610 EUR približne výmenný kurz z roku 2003). Priemerná cena jednoizbového bytu bola 673,24 CHF (540 USD, 300 GBP, 430 EUR), dvojizbového bytu približne 740,60 CHF (590 USD, 330 GBP, 470 EUR), trojizbový byt bol približne 910,37 CHF (730 USD, 410 GBP, 580 EUR) a šesť a viac izbový byt stáli v priemere 1406,75 CHF (1130 USD, 630 GBP, 900 EUR). Priemerná cena bytov v Bellinzone bola 85,7% z celoštátneho priemeru 1116 CHF. [26]

Historické demografie Upraviť

zdroj: Historický slovník Švajčiarska [27]
1591 1781 1808 1850 1880 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990
Populácia ca. 200 [A] ca. 1 100 1,260 3,209 4,036 10,406 10,706 12,060 16,979 16,849
Jazyk Nemecký 140 1,028 831 807 1,040 681
Francúzsky 6 74 127 162 179 209
Taliansky 3,887 9,266 9,712 11,053 15,574 14,948
Iné 3 38 36 38 186 1,011
Náboženstvo Protestant 43 632 550 577 844 626
rímsky katolík 3,985 8,947 9,577 11,196 15,817 14,592
Iné/Žiadne 8 827 579 287 318 1 631 [B]
Národnosť Švajčiarsky 2,742 3,260 6,936 8,755 10,427 12,848 11,924
Zahraničné 467 776 3,470 1,951 1,633 4,131 4,925
A Počet domácností B v roku 1990 bolo 879 buď ateistov, alebo sa nestotožňovalo so žiadnym náboženstvom

Vo federálnych voľbách 2007 bola najobľúbenejšou stranou FDP, ktorá získala 30,61% hlasov. Ďalšími troma najobľúbenejšími večierkami boli SP (23,11%), CVP (19,85%) a Ticino liga (11,42%). Vo federálnych voľbách bolo odovzdaných celkom 4634 hlasov a účasť voličov bola 46,1%. [28]

V roku 2007 [aktualizácia] Ticino Gran Consiglio voľbách bolo v Bellinzone celkom 10 187 zapísaných voličov, z ktorých hlasovalo 6 486 alebo 63,7%. Bolo odovzdaných 109 prázdnych hlasovacích lístkov a 16 prázdnych hlasovacích lístkov, čím zostalo vo voľbách 6361 platných hlasovacích lístkov. Najpopulárnejšou stranou bola PLRT, ktorá získala 1 569 alebo 24,7% hlasov. Ďalšie tri najpopulárnejšie strany boli SSI (s 1 233 alebo 19,4%), PS (s 1 210 alebo 19,0%) a PPD+GenGiova (s 957 alebo 15,0%). [29]

V roku 2007 [aktualizácia] Ticino Consiglio di Stato volieb bolo 60 prázdnych a 22 prázdnych hlasovacích lístkov, čo zanechalo vo voľbách 6 405 platných hlasovacích lístkov. Najpopulárnejšou stranou bola PS, ktorá získala 1 472 alebo 23% hlasov. Ďalšími troma najobľúbenejšími večierkami boli PLRT (s 1 453 alebo 22,7%), SSI (s 1 103 alebo 17,2%) a LEGA (s 1 074 alebo 16,8%). [29]

Miestny priemysel je založený predovšetkým na strojárstve. Società Bancaria Ticinese má sídlo v Bellinzone. Najdôležitejším zamestnávateľom sú Švajčiarske federálne železnice.

V roku 2007 [aktualizácia] mala Bellinzona mieru nezamestnanosti 5,16%. V roku 2005 [aktualizácia] bolo v primárnom ekonomickom sektore zamestnaných 33 ľudí a približne 10 podnikov zapojených do tohto sektora. V sekundárnom sektore je zamestnaných 1 691 ľudí a v tomto odvetví je 149 podnikov. V terciárnom sektore je zamestnaných 11 647 ľudí, z toho 1 093 podnikov. [20]

V roku 2000 [aktualizácia] do obce dochádzalo 16 293 robotníkov a 2 631 pracovníkov, ktorí dochádzali za prácou. Obec je čistým dovozcom robotníkov, pričom do každého mesta odchádza asi 6,2 pracovníka. Asi 45,3% pracovnej sily prichádzajúcej do Bellinzony pochádza z krajín mimo Švajčiarska, zatiaľ čo 0,1% miestnych obyvateľov dochádza za prácou zo Švajčiarska. [30] Z pracujúceho obyvateľstva 8,8% využilo na cestu do práce verejnú dopravu a 50,6% súkromný automobil. [20]

V roku 2009 [aktualizácia] bolo v Bellinzone 9 hotelov s celkovým počtom 145 izieb a 283 lôžkami. [31]

Zo sčítania ľudu v roku 2000 [aktualizácia] bolo 12 185 alebo 74,0% rímskokatolíckych, zatiaľ čo 651 alebo 4,0% patrilo Švajčiarskej reformovanej cirkvi. Existuje 2 164 osôb (alebo asi 13,14% populácie), ktorí patria k inej cirkvi (nie sú uvedení pri sčítaní ľudu), a 1 463 osôb (alebo asi 8,89% populácie) na otázku neodpovedalo. [21]

Bellinzona má v priemere 102,8 dní dažďa alebo snehu za rok a v priemere zráža 1563 mm (61,5 palcov) zrážok. Najmokrejším mesiacom je máj, počas ktorého Bellinzona prší alebo sneží v priemere 181 mm (7,1 palca). Počas tohto mesiaca sú zrážky v priemere 13 dní. Najsuchším mesiacom v roku je december s priemerom 60 mm zrážok počas 13 dní. [32]

V Bellinzone má asi 60,5% populácie (vo veku 25-64 rokov) buď nepovinné vyššie stredné vzdelanie, alebo ďalšie vysokoškolské vzdelanie (buď vysokoškolské alebo Fachhochschule). [20]

V Bellinzone je spolu 2 662 študentov (k roku 2009 [aktualizácia]). Vzdelávací systém Ticino poskytuje až tri roky nepovinnej materskej školy a v Bellinzone je 413 detí v materskej škole.

Program základnej školy trvá päť rokov a zahŕňa štandardnú školu aj špeciálnu školu. V obci navštevuje štandardné základné školy 781 žiakov a špeciálnu školu 51 študentov. V systéme nižších stredných škôl študenti navštevujú buď dvojročnú strednú školu, po ktorej nasleduje dvojročné predškolské vzdelávanie, alebo navštevujú štvorročný program na prípravu na vyššie vzdelávanie. Na dvojročnej strednej škole je 632 študentov a na ich predškolskom veku sú 3 študenti, zatiaľ čo v štvorročnom programe pre pokročilých je 271 študentov.

Vyššia stredná škola ponúka niekoľko možností, ale na konci vyššieho sekundárneho programu bude študent pripravený začať podnikať alebo pokračovať na univerzite alebo vysokej škole. V Ticine môžu študenti odborného vzdelávania navštevovať školu počas práce na stáži alebo učňovskom výcviku (ktorý trvá tri alebo štyri roky) alebo môžu navštevovať školu, po ktorej nasleduje prax alebo učňovské vzdelávanie (ktoré trvá jeden rok ako denný študent alebo jeden a pol roka) do dvoch rokov ako externý študent). [33] 162 odborných študentov navštevuje dennú školu a 299 externých. Odborný program trvá tri roky a pripraví študenta na prácu v strojárstve, ošetrovateľstve, informatike, obchode, cestovnom ruchu a podobných odboroch. V odbornom programe je 50 študentov. [34]

V roku 2000 [aktualizácia] žilo v Bellinzone 2 957 študentov, ktorí pochádzali z inej obce, pričom 313 obyvateľov navštevovalo školy mimo obce. [30]

V Bellinzone sa nachádzajú 2 knižnice. Medzi tieto knižnice patrí Biblioteca Cantonale Bellinzona a Biblioteca comunale. V knižniciach bolo spolu (k roku 2008 [aktualizácia]) 138 818 kníh alebo iných médií a v tom istom roku bolo požičaných 43 919 položiek. [35]

Železničná stanica Bellinzona je významnou medzizastávkou na Gotthardskej železnici. Je to zastávka pre hlavné vlaky smerujúce na sever smerom k Arth-Goldau a Zürichu, na juh k Luganu, Chiasso a Taliansku alebo na juhozápad do Locarna. Stanicu obsluhujú aj regionálne vlaky prevádzkované spoločnosťou TiLo na letisko Biasca, Chiasso, Locarno, Lugano a Malpensa.

PostBus Švajčiarsko, miestne známy ako AutoPostale, prevádzkujú malú sieť mestských autobusových liniek v rámci mesta Lugano, ako aj trasy na dlhšie vzdialenosti do iných miest a miest. Všetky trasy slúžia železničnej stanici.

Tu sa spájajú diaľnice A2 a A13, ako aj niektoré hlavné cesty, čo z neho robí dôležitý dopravný uzol. A2 vedie na sever cez Gotthardský priesmyk do Luzernu, Bazileja a Nemecka a na juh do Lugana a Talianska. A13 premáva na severovýchod cez priesmyk San Bernardino do Churu a Rakúska.

Mesto je známe karnevalom Rabadan, ktorý sa koná už viac ako 150 rokov.

Hokejový tím GDT Bellinzona hrá vo švajčiarskej 1. lige.

Ženské basketbalové mužstvo (Pallacanestro Bellinzona) hrá v Národnej lige A.

Florbalové mužstvo (Ticino Unihockey) hrá niekoľko rokov v národnej lige B.

Spoločnosť ľahkej atletiky (GAB Bellinzona) každoročne organizuje stretnutie s názvom „Galà dei Castelli“ (doslovne: galavečer hradov), na ktorom sa zúčastňuje množstvo svetoznámych športovcov a najlepších švajčiarskych športovcov.

Bellinzona je domovom dvanástich budov alebo oblastí, ktoré sú zaradené do zoznamu národného dedičstva Švajčiarska. Additionally, it is home to the UNESCO World Heritage Site of the Three Castles of Bellinzona. The merger on 2 April 2017 added seven additional buildings or sites. The entire old town of Bellinzona, along with the villages of Moleno and Preonzo, is listed on the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites. [36]

In addition to the Three Castles and the town walls, the medieval and early modern town is included on the list. Three religious buildings, the Church of S. Maria delle Grazie, the Collegiata dei Ss. Pietro e Stefano and the Church of S. Biagio a Ravecchiai, are on the list. The Cantonal Archives, Bagno Pubblico, the secondary school (Italian: Scuola media) on via Lavizzari 28 and the Teatro sociale are the rest of the buildings on the list.


Day 3

Monte Carasso: Discover the region from above

Carasc, a Tibetan bridge located between the municipalities of Sementina and Monte Carasso is 270 metres long, suspended 130 metres above the stream in Sementina and has a sag of 14 metres. It offers both amazing views of the Magadino Plain and an adrenaline kick for courageous hikers. The little cluster of houses that is Curzútt has been extensively renovated and is much more laid back.

The trail then passes through lush vineyards and vibrant autumn chestnut woods with views over the brilliant blue Lake Maggiore.


Top Historic Sights in Bellinzona, Switzerland

Angelokastro is a Byzantine castle on the island of Corfu. It is located at the top of the highest peak of the island"s shoreline in the northwest coast near Palaiokastritsa and built on particularly precipitous and rocky terrain. It stands 305 m on a steep cliff above the sea and surveys the City of Corfu and the mountains of mainland Greece to the southeast and a wide area of Corfu toward the northeast and northwest.

Angelokastro is one of the most important fortified complexes of Corfu. It was an acropolis which surveyed the region all the way to the southern Adriatic and presented a formidable strategic vantage point to the occupant of the castle.

Angelokastro formed a defensive triangle with the castles of Gardiki and Kassiopi, which covered Corfu"s defences to the south, northwest and northeast.

The castle never fell, despite frequent sieges and attempts at conquering it through the centuries, and played a decisive role in defending the island against pirate incursions and during three sieges of Corfu by the Ottomans, significantly contributing to their defeat.

During invasions it helped shelter the local peasant population. The villagers also fought against the invaders playing an active role in the defence of the castle.

The exact period of the building of the castle is not known, but it has often been attributed to the reigns of Michael I Komnenos and his son Michael II Komnenos. The first documentary evidence for the fortress dates to 1272, when Giordano di San Felice took possession of it for Charles of Anjou, who had seized Corfu from Manfred, King of Sicily in 1267.

From 1387 to the end of the 16th century, Angelokastro was the official capital of Corfu and the seat of the Provveditore Generale del Levante, governor of the Ionian islands and commander of the Venetian fleet, which was stationed in Corfu.

The governor of the castle (the castellan) was normally appointed by the City council of Corfu and was chosen amongst the noblemen of the island.

Angelokastro is considered one of the most imposing architectural remains in the Ionian Islands.


Obsah

The toponym is first attested in 590 in Latin as Belitio alebo Bilitio (in the accusative, Bilitionem), by Gregory of Tours. [6] The name is Lepontic in origin, possibly from belitio ("juniper") or belitione ("juniper bushes"). [7]

During the medieval period, the name is found as Berinzona (721, 762, 803, 1002), Birrinzona (1004), Birizona (1168), Beliciona (901, 977) and Belinzona (1055). [8] The German name of the town is Bellenz. A local folk etymology derives the name Bellinzona od zona bellica "war zone", making a connection to the Italian Wars.

The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is an erect serpent in silver on a red field. The fabulous animal is called in Italian "Biscione". This animal, which can also be found on the arms of the Alfa Romeo car company, is linked with the Visconti family, who were feudal lords of Bellinzona in the 14th and 15th centuries. [9]

Pre-History and Roman era Edit

Bellinzona has always occupied an important geographic location in the Alps. To the south, the Po Valley is accessible by a lowland route down the valley of the river Ticino and by Lake Maggiore. To the north, the valley of the Ticino leads to the high alpine passes of Nufenen, St. Gotthard, Lukmanier and San Bernardino. Although now little used, the San Jorio Pass to the east was also important in Bellinzona's past. [10]

While the region has been occupied since the early Neolithic age [10] [11] it wasn't until the late 1st century BC that a fort was built in the area during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus. While the fort fell into disrepair in the following centuries, it was rebuilt and greatly expanded in the 4th century AD. During the reign of Diocletian and Constantin a chain of castles and watchtowers were built to protect northern Italy from invasion. Bellinzona's location was recognized as a key point in the defenses and a large castle was built to protect the walls. The town that grew up around the fortifications was known as Bilitio.

Following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire the successor states, which included the Ostrogoths around 500 AD, the eastern Byzantine Empire towards the middle of the 6th century, and the Longobards from 568/70, all took control of Bellinzona and used the castle to assert control of the surrounding passes. Under the Longobards, Bellinzona became the site of a permanent garrison to protect the region from raids by the neighboring Frankish and Alemannic tribes. [12] From Bellinzona the Longobards controlled the traffic on the important trade route from Varese over Ponte Tresa, the Monte Ceneri Pass, Biasca and finally over the Lukmanier Pass into Chur. Some researchers believe that Bellinzona may have been the capital of a county that included most of the valleys in Ticino. [12]

Raný stredovek Upraviť

At around 774 the Frankish Kingdom (that would become the Carolingian Empire) gained control of the Ticino valley including Bellinzona.

About two centuries later the Holy Roman Emperor Otto III, seeking to restore the power of glory of ancient Rome and expand into Italy, opened the Lukmanier and St. Bernard passes. Control of Bellinzona was a key part of this expansion. The town was taken from Milan and given as a gift to the Bishop of Como, who supported the Ottonian dynasty. In 1002, following the death of Otto III, Marquis Arduino of Ivrea declared himself King of Italy and ratified the bishop's ownership of the Castelgrande and the town. Two years later, after Arduino had been defeated by Henry II the King of Germany, Henry II's man Enrico II reratified the gift of the Castlegrande on the Bishop of Como. [13] The town is mentioned in medieval sources in 1218 as Bilizione.

Conflicts between the Pope and the Emperor Edit

During the Investiture Controversy of the late 11th century the town of Bellinzona with its castle came under the control of the Hohenstaufens of Swabia. However, in 1180, Frederick I (Barbarossa) placed the town under the jurisdiction of the town of Como. [13] In the following years Como tended to support the Pope in his conflicts with the Holy Roman Emperor. However, in 1239, Como sided with the Emperor Frederick II who quickly moved forces into Bellinzona and strengthened the Castelgrande. In 1242 Milan sent Guelph (or pro-papacy) forces under the command of Simone di Orello to take Bellinzona. [13] The town and castle were taken which weakened the Emperor south of the Alps. However the town was back under the jurisdiction of Como in 1249. [12] Conflicts in northern Italy continued, the Castelgrande was besieged several times in 1284, 1292 and 1303. During this time the Rusca family in Como, a Ghibelline or pro-Imperial family, fought the growing power of Milan under the pro-papacy House of Visconti with limited success. Around the end of the 13th century the Rusca family built another castle, Montebello, in Bellinzona, which they controlled. This was fortunate because by 1335 the Rusca family had been driven out of Como and had to retreat to Bellinzona. Five years later, in 1340, Milan besieged Bellinzona. Following a lengthy siege, the town fell to Milan but the Ruscas were allowed to keep Montebello. [13] Pro-papacy Milan would dominate Bellinzona for the next one and a half centuries, though the pro-Imperial Rusca would also occupy part of the town.

Expansion of Bellinzona under Milan Edit

Under the control of the Visconti, trade flourished and Bellinzona grew. When an alternative route over the Alps, the Schöllenen bridge opened, traffic in the St. Gotthard increased to the highest levels ever. [14] During the second half of the 14th century a long wall, the Murata, was built across the Tessin valley, allowing Milan to protect and tax the trade route over the St. Gotthard Pass. [12] While the town was controlled by Milan through the Visconti after 1340, the Visconti did not have a formal title and feudal rights until 1396 when they were granted by King Wenceslaus. However, the orderly growth of Bellinzona was threatened in 1402 when Duke Gian Galeazzo Visconti died. In 1403 Bellinzona came under the control of Alberto di Sacco of Val Mesolcina, who held it until 1419 before it was taken over by Uri and Obwalden, which expanded into the Leventina Valley. Milan attacked the town three years later in 1422 after an offer to buy the town was rejected by the Swiss Confederation. The troops from Uri and Obwalden were quickly driven from the town and later defeated at the Battle of Arbedo on 30 June 1422. This defeat discouraged the expansionist intentions of Uri and its allies towards Lake Maggiore for a time.

During the period of unrest following Gian Galeazzo Visconti's death, a tower which would become the nucleus of the third castle, Sasso Corbaro, was built outside the town.

While the border between Uri and Milan was fixed in the peace treaty of 1426, in 1439 Uri invaded again. While they were unable to take Bellinzona, the victories of the Swiss troops led to Milan granting all of the Leventina Valley to Pollegio to Uri in 1441. Following the death of Duke Filippo Maria Visconti in 1447, Bellinzona was in the middle of the succession crisis between Franchino Rusca of Locarno and Heinrich of Val Mesolcina, who were allied with Uri and the Ambrosian Republic in Milan. The war following the succession crisis lasted nearly three years until Francesco I Sforza seized power in Milan. Bellinzona quickly accepted the new Sforza dynasty and the peace and stability that followed. [12]

The peace was broken again in 1478 when the Swiss once again attacked Bellinzona unsuccessfully. However Swiss pride was restored by the Battle of Giornico which followed, where a force of 600 Swiss soldiers defeated 10,000 Milanese troops. Following the attack, Milan built the Sasso Corbaro either on the site of a tower which had been built nearly a century before. [12] The other two castles were strengthened and the Murata wall across the valley was rebuilt. Much of the modern castles and fortifications date from this period of construction in the late 15th century.

An associate of the Swiss Confederation Edit

In 1499 nearly one and a half centuries of Milanese rule ended with the invasion of Milan by Louis XII of France. He captured Bellinzona and fearing an attack by the Swiss, fortified the Castelgrande with 1000 troops. [15] Throughout the winter of 1499/1500 unrest in Bellinzona grew, until January when an armed revolt of the citizens of Bellinzona drove the French troops from the town. Following the capture and execution of Ludovico Sforza in April 1500 and seeking protection from France, Bellinzona joined the Swiss Confederation on 14 April 1500, as a condominium under the joint administration of Uri, Schwyz and Nidwalden. Following the Napoleonic invasion of Switzerland in 1798, Bellinzona was the capital of the canton of Bellinzona within the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803).

Bellinzona since 1803 Edit

Following the Act of Mediation in 1803 Bellinzona became part of the independent canton of Ticino, and the capital of the new canton from 1803 to 1814. From that date until 1878, Bellinzona, Lugano, and Locarno, took turns being capital every six years. In 1878 Bellinzona became the capital of the canton.

The town includes the village of Artore and, since the incorporation in 1907, the former municipalities of Carasso, Daro, and Ravecchia.

In 1874, the first sections of the Gotthard railway opened, linking Bellinzona to Biasca and Locarno. By 1882, the whole line was open, extending northwards to northern Switzerland via the Gotthard Tunnel, southwards to Lugano and Milan via the Monte Ceneri Pass, and down the east shore of Lake Maggiore to Luino. Between 1907 and 1972, Bellinzona was also linked to Mesocco and other Val Mesolcina communities by the Bellinzona–Mesocco railway.

On 2 April 2017 the former neighbouring municipalities of Camorino, Claro, Giubiasco, Gnosca, Gorduno, Gudo, Moleno, Monte Carasso, Pianezzo, Preonzo, Sant'Antonio and Sementina merged into Bellinzona. [16]

Bellinzona is situated in the valley of the river Ticino, at an altitude of 240 metres (790 ft). The town centre lies about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) east of the river, with the urban area confined to the bottom and lower slopes of the valley. However the municipality's boundaries extend up both sides of the valley, to altitudes of 2,240 metres (7,350 ft) to the west, and 2,195 metres (7,201 ft) to the east. [3]

The town is located at a point at which the river Ticino, which has been flowing in a generally southerly direction, makes a turn to the west, to flow through the wide Pionoa di Magadino before entering the Lake Maggiore, and after it finally reaches to the Italian Po Valley and Lombardy.

Upstream, several valleys reach into the high Alps, with access to northern Switzerland over or through the Passo del San Gottardo via the Valle Leventina, the upper valley of the Ticino, and further to the west with access to the Valais over the Nufenen Pass via the Val Bedretto, and access to the Grisonian Surselva of the Anterior Rhine via the Valle di Blenio over the Lukmanier Pass. The river Moesa, running down the Valle Mesolcina from the San Bernardino Pass with access to the Gresionian valley Rheinwald of the Posterior Rhine, joins the Ticino on the northern boundary of the town. [3]

To the south the Monte Ceneri Pass crosses the Lugano Prealps to give access to Lake Lugano and an alternate route to Lombardy, whilst the San Jorio Pass provides a possible route east to the upper Lake Como. [3] [10]

The town Bellinzona has an area, as of 1997 [update] , of 19.15 square kilometers (7.39 sq mi). Of this area, 4.21 km 2 (1.63 sq mi) or 22.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 11.96 km 2 (4.62 sq mi) or 62.5% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 4.55 km 2 (1.76 sq mi) or 23.8% is settled (buildings or roads), 0.47 km 2 (0.18 sq mi) or 2.5% is either rivers or lakes and 0.09 km 2 (22 acres) or 0.5% is unproductive land. [17] Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 1.6% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 13.0%. Transportation infrastructure made up 5.8% while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 2.7%. Out of the forested land, 60.1% of the total land area is heavily forested and 1.9% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 6.6% is used for growing crops, while 2.5% is used for orchards or vine crops and 13.0% is used for alpine pastures. All the water in the municipality is flowing water. [17]

Bellinzona has a permanent population (as of December 2019 [update] ) of 43,279 [18] . In 2008, 29.4% of the population were foreign nationals. [19] Between 1997 and 2007 the population has changed at a rate of 0.7%.

Most of the population (as of 2000 [update] ) speaks Italian (87.4%), with German being second most common (3.6%) and Serbo-Croatian being third (2.5%). [20] Of the Swiss national languages (as of 2000 [update] ), 14,392 people speak Italian, 590 speak German, 189 people speak French, and 13 people speak Romansh. The remainder (1,279 people) speak another language. [21] The metropolitan area of Bellinzona had a population of 47,128, [22] divided into 16 municipalities.

As of 2008 [update] , the gender distribution of the population was 46.6% male and 53.4% female. The population was made up of 5,503 Swiss men (31.8% of the population), and 2,567 (14.8%) non-Swiss men. There were 6,781 Swiss women (39.1%), and 2,472 (14.3%) non-Swiss women. [23]

In 2008 [update] there were 132 live births to Swiss citizens and 45 births to non-Swiss citizens, and in same time span there were 132 deaths of Swiss citizens and 15 non-Swiss citizen deaths. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens remained the same while the foreign population increased by 30. There were 7 Swiss men who emigrated from Switzerland to another country, 3 Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland to another country, 67 non-Swiss men who emigrated from Switzerland to another country and 70 non-Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland to another country. The total Swiss population change in 2008 (from all sources) was an increase of 377 and the non-Swiss population change was a decrease of 202 people. This represents a population growth rate of 1.0%. [19]

The age distribution, as of 2009 [update] , in Bellinzona is 1,530 children or 8.8% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 1,623 teenagers or 9.4% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population, 2,091 people or 12.1% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 2,526 people or 14.6% are between 30 and 39, 2,721 people or 15.7% are between 40 and 49, and 2,260 people or 13.0% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 1,969 people or 11.4% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 1,470 people or 8.5% are between 70 and 79, there are 1,133 people or 6.5% who are between 80 and 89. [23]

As of 2000 [update] , there were 7,294 private households in the municipality, and an average of 2.2 persons per household. [20] In 2000 [update] there were 1,490 single family homes (or 51.5% of the total) out of a total of 2,892 inhabited buildings. There were 419 two family buildings (14.5%) and 642 multi-family buildings (22.2%). There were also 341 buildings in the municipality that were multipurpose buildings (used for both housing and commercial or another purpose). [24]

The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2008 [update] , was 1.45%. Of the apartments, a total of 7,255 apartments (85.8% of the total) were permanently occupied, while 932 apartments (11.0%) were seasonally occupied and 268 apartments (3.2%) were empty. [25] In 2000 [update] there were 8,455 apartments in the municipality. The most common apartment size was the 3-room apartment of which there were 2,746. There were 474 single room apartments and 1,253 apartments with five or more rooms. [25] As of 2007 [update] , the construction rate of new housing units was 6.2 new units per 1000 residents. [20]

As of 2003 [update] the average price to rent an average apartment in Bellinzona was 956.03 Swiss francs (CHF) per month (US$760, £430, €610 approx. exchange rate from 2003). The average rate for a one-room apartment was 673.24 CHF (US$540, £300, €430), a two-room apartment was about 740.60 CHF (US$590, £330, €470), a three-room apartment was about 910.37 CHF (US$730, £410, €580) and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 1406.75 CHF (US$1130, £630, €900). The average apartment price in Bellinzona was 85.7% of the national average of 1116 CHF. [26]

Historic Demographics Edit

source: Historical Dictionary of Switzerland [27]
1591 1781 1808 1850 1880 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990
Populácia ca. 200 [A] ca. 1,100 1,260 3,209 4,036 10,406 10,706 12,060 16,979 16,849
Jazyk Nemecký 140 1,028 831 807 1,040 681
Francúzsky 6 74 127 162 179 209
Taliansky 3,887 9,266 9,712 11,053 15,574 14,948
Iné 3 38 36 38 186 1,011
Religion Protestant 43 632 550 577 844 626
rímsky katolík 3,985 8,947 9,577 11,196 15,817 14,592
Other/None 8 827 579 287 318 1,631 [B]
Nationality Swiss 2,742 3,260 6,936 8,755 10,427 12,848 11,924
Zahraničné 467 776 3,470 1,951 1,633 4,131 4,925
A Number of households B in 1990, 879 were either atheist or did not identify with any religion

In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the FDP which received 30.61% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SP (23.11%), the CVP (19.85%) and the Ticino League (11.42%). In the federal election, a total of 4,634 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 46.1%. [28]

In the 2007 [update] Ticino Gran Consiglio election, there were a total of 10,187 registered voters in Bellinzona, of which 6,486 or 63.7% voted. 109 blank ballots and 16 null ballots were cast, leaving 6,361 valid ballots in the election. The most popular party was the PLRT which received 1,569 or 24.7% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SSI (with 1,233 or 19.4%), the PS (with 1,210 or 19.0%) and the PPD+GenGiova (with 957 or 15.0%). [29]

In the 2007 [update] Ticino Consiglio di Stato election, there were 60 blank ballots and 22 null ballots, which left 6,405 valid ballots in the election. The most popular party was the PS which received 1,472 or 23.% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the PLRT (with 1,453 or 22.7%), the SSI (with 1,103 or 17.2%) and the LEGA (with 1,074 or 16.8%). [29]

The local industry is mainly based on mechanical engineering. The Società Bancaria Ticinese is based in Bellinzona. The most important employer is Swiss Federal Railways.

As of 2007 [update] , Bellinzona had an unemployment rate of 5.16%. As of 2005 [update] , there were 33 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 10 businesses involved in this sector. 1,691 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 149 businesses in this sector. 11,647 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 1,093 businesses in this sector. [20]

In 2000 [update] , there were 16,293 workers who commuted into the municipality and 2,631 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net importer of workers, with about 6.2 workers entering the municipality for every one leaving. About 45.3% of the workforce coming into Bellinzona are coming from outside Switzerland, while 0.1% of the locals commute out of Switzerland for work. [30] Of the working population, 8.8% used public transportation to get to work, and 50.6% used a private car. [20]

As of 2009 [update] , there were 9 hotels in Bellinzona with a total of 145 rooms and 283 beds. [31]

From the 2000 census [update] , 12,185 or 74.0% were Roman Catholic, while 651 or 4.0% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. There are 2,164 individuals (or about 13.14% of the population) who belong to another church (not listed on the census), and 1,463 individuals (or about 8.89% of the population) did not answer the question. [21]

Bellinzona has an average of 102.8 days of rain or snow per year and on average receives 1,563 mm (61.5 in) of precipitation. The wettest month is May during which time Bellinzona receives an average of 181 mm (7.1 in) of rain or snow. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 13 days. The driest month of the year is December with an average of 60 mm (2.4 in) of precipitation over 13 days. [32]

In Bellinzona about 60.5% of the population (between age 25–64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule). [20]

In Bellinzona there are a total of 2,662 students (as of 2009 [update] ). The Ticino education system provides up to three years of non-mandatory kindergarten and in Bellinzona there are 413 children in kindergarten.

The primary school program lasts for five years and includes both a standard school and a special school. In the municipality, 781 students attend the standard primary schools and 51 students attend the special school. In the lower secondary school system, students either attend a two-year middle school followed by a two-year pre-apprenticeship or they attend a four-year program to prepare for higher education. There are 632 students in the two-year middle school and 3 in their pre-apprenticeship, while 271 students are in the four-year advanced program.

The upper secondary school includes several options, but at the end of the upper secondary program, a student will be prepared to enter a trade or to continue on to a university or college. In Ticino, vocational students may either attend school while working on their internship or apprenticeship (which takes three or four years) or may attend school followed by an internship or apprenticeship (which takes one year as a full-time student or one and a half to two years as a part-time student). [33] There are 162 vocational students who are attending school full-time and 299 who attend part-time. The professional program lasts three years and prepares a student for a job in engineering, nursing, computer science, business, tourism and similar fields. There are 50 students in the professional program. [34]

As of 2000 [update] , there were 2,957 students in Bellinzona who came from another municipality, while 313 residents attended schools outside the municipality. [30]

Bellinzona is home to 2 libraries. These libraries include the Biblioteca Cantonale Bellinzona and the Biblioteca comunale. There was a combined total (as of 2008 [update] ) of 138,818 books or other media in the libraries, and in the same year a total of 43,919 items were loaned out. [35]

Bellinzona railway station is a major intermediate stop on the Gotthard railway. It is a stopping point for major trains heading north toward Arth-Goldau and Zürich, south toward Lugano, Chiasso and Italy, or southwest to Locarno. The station is also served by the regional trains operated by TiLo to Biasca, Chiasso, Locarno, Lugano and Malpensa Airport.

PostBus Switzerland, known locally as the AutoPostale, operate a small network of city bus routes within Lugano, as well as longer distance routes to other towns and cities. All routes serve the railway station.

The A2 and A13 motorways, as well as some main roads, link here, thus making it an important transportational node. The A2 runs north via the Gotthard Pass to Lucerne, Basle and Germany, and south to Lugano and Italy. The A13 runs north-east via the San Bernardino Pass to Chur and Austria.

The town is known for its carnival Rabadan, which has taken place for over 150 years.

GDT Bellinzona, the hockey team, plays in the Swiss 1. Liga.

The female basketball team (Pallacanestro Bellinzona) plays in the National League A.

The floorball team (Ticino Unihockey) plays in the National league B since some years.

The light athletics society (GAB Bellinzona) organises every year a meeting called "Galà dei Castelli" (literally: Castles's gala), with a lot of world-famous athletes and the best Swiss athletes.

Bellinzona is home to twelve buildings or areas that are listed as Swiss heritage site of national significance. Additionally, it is home to the UNESCO World Heritage Site of the Three Castles of Bellinzona. The merger on 2 April 2017 added seven additional buildings or sites. The entire old town of Bellinzona, along with the villages of Moleno and Preonzo, is listed on the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites. [36]

In addition to the Three Castles and the town walls, the medieval and early modern town is included on the list. Three religious buildings, the Church of S. Maria delle Grazie, the Collegiata dei Ss. Pietro e Stefano and the Church of S. Biagio a Ravecchiai, are on the list. The Cantonal Archives, Bagno Pubblico, the secondary school (Italian: Scuola media) on via Lavizzari 28 and the Teatro sociale are the rest of the buildings on the list.


Castle Castelgrande

The Castles of Bellinzona
Bellinzona Tourist Office proposes Bellinzona, capital town of the Italian speaking part of Switzerland and its three medieval castles, which boast UNESCO World Heritage status, as a privileged venue for prestigious corporate events, and as an ideal location for a stay which transforms a working visit into an unforgettable cultural occasion.


The traditional quality of its hotel service and its authentic regional cuisine are further incentives to choose this historic town, which, by capitalizing on its unique architectural heritage and the particular attractions of the region, is able to offer a unique style of hospitality that few can equal.


Once a fortified barrier at the gateway to the Alps, today a UNESCO World Heritage site. The fortifications in Bellinzona are an extraordinary example of late medieval military architecture situated in a strategic position at the gateway to the Alpine passes. In the period from 1920 to 1950 a considerable amount of work was carried out on the castles of Montebello and Sasso Corbaro. The final phase of the conservation project for Castelgrande - the comprehensive renovation of the castle by Architect Aurelio Galfetti - has now been completed. The final results of this bold restoration project, a harmonious blend of the ancient with the modern, testify to the quality of the architectural and technical operations which have made the castle an integral part of the daily life of the town.

Castelgrande
The prestige of a historical ambience for your special event:


Montebello, Sasso Corbaro and Castelgrande the castles of Bellinzona

Bellinzona is a city located north of Lugano in Švajčiarsko, not far from Como a Varese, located 60 km to the south. So this is an interesting destination for a weekend in Switzerland (although the inside of the manor is open to the public until November) or a trip designed to enhance one of the holidays in December. An interesting destination where you can expect to see three interesting castles and you don’t need to have a high financial profile to visit them:

The castles of Bellinzona are among the finest examples of medieval fortification in the Alps. Even today, these fortifications declared Svetové dedičstvo UNESCO in 2000, with their crenellated walls, tower and gates and never cease to surprise you. Their names are Montebello, Sasso Corbaro a Castelgrande and bear witness to a history of wars, invasions and border conflicts.

The Castle of Sasso Corbaro is separated from other works of defense unified from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century. At that point in 1400 there was a strong tower around which grew a fortress deemed necessary for better control of the area. The present appearance of the castle dates back to the nineteenth century, however, when the ruins were restored they altered its appearance. The view that you will enjoy is fantastic: it is enlarged to the north, to the Riviera Valley dominated by lake Claro and towards the south it goes up to the Lake Maggiore in the Italian territory.

The Castle of Montebello is named after the hill on which it was built. From it branched off the walls that enclosed the ancient village. The keep and the palace was home to the Museum which houses weapons, firearms and archaeological finds.

Another hill, another castle: Castelgrande has an ancient history and is the first fortified settlement dating back to the fourth century AD. ‘The embattled city’, dominated by towers as high as 28 meters it is divided into three sectors. One of them comes off the rail that goes down in the city. From this castle the view is beautiful. It can be reached by climbing steep paths, Collegiate Square and Square Nosetto. The inner courtyard and Murata Sforza can also be visited in winter.


Canyonlands: Tales from Narrow Places

The border between Italy and Switzerland has no checkpoint, guard gate or manned security. It is however teaming with activity as tourists mill about taking in the beauty of the alpine landscape at Splügen Pass. After stopping to take in the scenery ourselves we cross into Switzerland and make our way down a dozen or so switchbacks. That afternoon we arrive at our campsite along the banks of the Maggia River, one of the major valleys that makes up the geography of the canton (county) of Ticino. The technical slots we will descend over the course of the next week are side canyons of the Maggia and the other major valleys of the area. For the foreseeable future any kind of technical descent will have to be put on hold as the weather forecast calls for a major low pressure system settling over much of Europe. As the clouds move in, Laura and I go for a walk at dusk along the Maggia River, passing by the largest and most elaborate cairn structures I have ever witnessed.

The following day as the intensity of the rain increases we explore the ancient city of Bellinzona, the capital of Ticino and it’s three castles. The city has been considered a key strategic point connecting Italy with the rest of the continent to the north because of its close proximity to several alpine passes. While the city has been occupied since the early Neolithic Age, possibly up to 7000 years ago, Bellinzona was first fortified in the first century BC on a rocky outcropping in the middle of the city. One of the three castles, Castlegrande, sits at this very site. The other two castles, Montebello and Sasso Corbaro, date back to the 1300s and 1400s, respectively. All three castles were renovated and expanded throughout the middle ages. Much of the construction of the castles that stand today were built by the Dukes of Milan in the 15th century who were trying to defend attacks from the Swiss and the French. In 1499, Louis XII of France captured Bellinzona. Several months later, an armed revolt of local citizens drove the French troops out of the city and seeking protection from the French joined the Swiss Confederation. Bellinzona and the surrounding countryside would remain part of Switzerland through today, but its people would continue to speak Italian and their food, identity and culture would be heavily influenced from their Italian history.

We explore the courtyards, towers and hallways of the castles under an increasingly steady rain. From atop a tower of the Sasso Corbaro, the geographic highest of the three castles we are treated to magnificent vistas of Bellinzona and the surrounding countryside as low lying clouds move in and out of the valley. From atop this vantage point we can see how integrated the castles and other medieval fortified structures are into downtown Bellinzona. Despite this amazing historic and cultural tour I would be lying if I did not admit that the inclement weather was getting me down.

Val di Gei inferiore, V4A4III Maggia Valley, Ticino, Switzerland 08/31/12

Awake at 3am from the sounds of pitter patter on our tent. It is not a happy noise to hear for a trio of canyoneers who have come a long way. I awake cranky from inside my damp sleeping bag. I peer out my tent and though the weather looks far from bright and sunny, it is vastly improved, with even a few patches of blue sky. We decide to check the water flows of the nearby technical descent of Val di Gei inferiore. In our possession we have the guidebook, “Eldorado Ticino” by Luca and Anna Nizzola, a guide to the best technical descents of Ticino written in English. One of the most helpful aspects of the guidebook are photographs that serve as a checkpoint for what are safe conditions based on the amount of water flow. Too much water flow in these canyons can range from extremely challenging to potentially deadly. These side by side photos of a point at the bottom of the canyon can be used to compare to the current conditions. This helps determine if the water flows are within what an individual would consider acceptable for a safe descent. From a stone bridge spanning the bottom of the canyon we use the photographs and though the flow seem a bit on the high side we decide to go for it.

Passing by a religious shrine in the middle of the forest during the approach the sun pokes through the clouds. We leave the main trail and carefully make our way into the canyon bottom. Armed with the knowledge we learned from Pascal we are ready. We immediately encounter a 40- foot toboggan. Further down canyon the rappels begin. Rappels in high water flow can be extremely challenging and potentially dangerous if not using proper techniques. The bottom of these drops often have dangerous hydraulics that could potentially suck in an unsuspecting individual. It is imperative that the rope is not set long on a rappel. This allows a canyoneer to rappel right off the end of the rope. If the rope is long the canyoneer is forced to tread water to remove the excess rope from one’s descending device and risk getting sucked into the hydraulic. A system of lowering the first rappeler on a contingency anchor is used to ensure that the rope is set to the proper length. In the deafening water, whistles signals are used for communication during this process. A 150- foot rappel in Val di Gei tests all of these skills as Eric lowers me 25- feet while I am pummeled by falling water. Many obstacles but all too quickly we reach the stone bridge we walked across earlier and the canyon ends. Clad in our wetsuits and with big smiles on our faces we walk through the quaint town of Gordevio to get back to our vehicle.

Val Grande inferiore, V3A4III Maggia Valley, Ticino, Switzerland 08/31/12

With plenty of light still in the day and the weather still clear we go for a descent of neighboring Val Grande inferiore. During the approach we pass by a farmer and his teenage daughter repairing a fence on a hillside. They speak no English. We play charades and they are able to communicate with us the remainder of the route to the canyon bottom via a fixed line down a steep slope. Val Grande is even more beautiful than the previous descent, including a triple streamed waterfall rappel, narrow striated walls, lush vegetation and a 100- foot rappel down a narrow chute under an old stone bridge, as a finale.

To celebrate our first descents of Switzerland we have an amazing dinner at a nearby Grotto. Grottoes are simple taverns that serve regional food often on a fixed menu. In other words everyone eats the same thing and it is delicious. Tonight it is aged cheese, green salad, barbecue spare ribs with an Italian seasoning and German Potato Salad. We drink the local Merlot, Ticino’s specialty, from the small vineyards that you can see everywhere: along hillsides, in the courtyards of the castles, in residential yards, alongside churches, in small pockets in downtown Bellinzona, even at our campground. This was also the night we discovered Nocino, a regional liqueur made of unripened walnuts. The after dinner drink would become a fixture for the remainder of our trip. We returned to our campsite full and feeling pretty good.

Laura and David at the border between Italy and Switzerland at Splügen Pass. A cairn tower along the Maggia River as clouds roll in at dusk. Low hanging clouds roll into the valley floor near Bellinzona. Laura looks out from the fortified walls of castle Sasso Corbaro in Bellinzona. Downtown Bellinzona is integrated into Castelgrande (left) and castle Montebello (right). Staying dry on a misty, raw day in Bellinzona.
A tower of Castelgrande in Bellinzona. The sun sets on the Maggia Valley. A religious shrine in the forest during the hike to Val di Gei inferiore. Eric slides in Val di Gei inferiore. Eric on rappel in Val di Gei inferiore. David on rappel in Val di Gei inferiore.
Eric on the final rappel of Val di Gei inferiore. David and Eric walk through Gordevio during the “exit” hike after Val di Gei inferiore. Amazing three streamed waterfall in Val Grande inferiore. Laura working Val Grande inferiore. Laura swims in Val Grande inferiore. Eric on the final rappel in Val Grande inferiore.


Pozri si video: Slovensko - Malá Fatra - Veľký Rozsutec (Smieť 2022).


Komentáre:

  1. Branduff

    And I ran into this. Môžeme komunikovať o tejto téme.Tu alebo v PM.

  2. Sandon

    Ďakujem za pomoc v tejto otázke, aj ja si myslím, že čím jednoduchšie, tým lepšie...

  3. Cinwell

    Something does not achieve like this

  4. Samujas

    Myslím, že je to áno

  5. Swinton

    Sorry that I cannot take part in the discussion right now - there is no free time. I will be released - I will definitely express my opinion on this issue.

  6. Bradbourne

    Všetko, čokoľvek.

  7. Wendell

    Happy New Year to you and all readers!



Napíšte správu